8. Renal.rtf - Renal Review of Renal System Nephron is...

This preview shows page 1 - 6 out of 45 pages.

Renal Review of Renal System Nephron is functional unit of kidney o Each kidney has 800,000-1.2 million nephrons Composed of glomerulus, Bowman’s Capsule and a tubular system o Tubular system consists of proximal convuluted rubule, loop of Henle, and distal convoluted tubule and a collecting tubule o Glomeruli, Bowman’s Capsule, proximal and distal tubules are in cortex Loop of Henle and collecting tubules in medulle Several collecting tubules form single collecting duct Ducts merge into pyramid that empties into a minor calyx Physiology of Urine Formation Basic function is to filter blood and maintain homeostasis Glomerular Function Blood filtered here Semi-permeable membrane allowing filtration
Image of page 1

Subscribe to view the full document.

Amount of blood filtered by glomeruli is called the Glomerular Filtration Rate (Creatinine Clearance) - This is the same as the creatinine clearance Creatinine is waste product of muscle breakdown Primarily a protein Tubular Function Proximal convoluted tubule 80% of electrolytes are reabsorbed Loop of Henle Reabsorption of Na and Cl Conserves water and concentrates filtrate Distal Tubule Secretion of K and H+ ions, ammonia, reabsorption of HCO3, Regulation of CA and PO4 by parathyroid hormone The higher the potassium, the more bradycardia (widening QRS) o (hyperkalemia = >5; concerns at >6 K) ****Table 45-9… Know basic normal U/A results Pg 1119 Obstructive Uropathies Anatomic of functional that blocks or impedes the flow of urine Effects are seen above level of obstruction
Image of page 2
Severity depends on many factors, including location, duration, pressure/dilation, stasis, and infection Urinary Tract Calculi Nephrolithiasis: Kidney stones o More common in men than women; Recurrence can be as high as 50% o ? Role of dehydration… Seems to be a higher incidence in summer months Obstructive Disorders Obstruction interferes with flow of urine Severity dependent on… o Location o Number of structures involved o Completeness of blockage o Duration o Type of obstructive lesion Kidney Stones Classified according to mineral that comprises stone Calcium or phosphate (70-80%) Struvite (magnesium-ammonium-phosphate) (15%) Uric Acid (7%) - Gout
Image of page 3

Subscribe to view the full document.

Cystine (1%) genetic autosomal recessive More men than women affected with a 50% recurrence rate within 5 years Decreased fluid intake can increase risk Size/Shape of Kidney Stone o Size of stone determines if it will be passed during urination o Smaller than 4-5mm have 50% chance of passing o Those larger than 1 cm have virtually no chance of passing Stone Formation o Temp and pH o Alkaline urinary pH increases risk of calcium stone o Acidic urinary pH increases risk of uric acid stone Clinical symptoms occur when urine flow is obstructed Abdominal/flank pain, hematuria, renal colic, nausea, vomiting Diagnosed by urinalysis, urine culture, IVP, ultrasound, and cystoscopy
Image of page 4
Image of page 5

Subscribe to view the full document.

Image of page 6
  • Spring '12

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern