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biol252-labs123-answers - The Language of Anatomy Surface...

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Unformatted text preview: The Language of Anatomy Surface Anatomy 1. For each of the numbered descriptions, write the equivalent key term or its letter in front of the descriptiorl. Key: a. buccal c. cephalic e. patellar b. calcaneal d. digital f. scapular L 1. cheek M 4. anterior aspect of knee L 2. pertaining to the fingers M— 5. heel of foot Imm— 3, shoulder blade region ML— 6. pertaining to the head 2. Indicate the following body areas on the accompanying diagram by placing the correct key letter at the end of each line. Key: abdominal antecubital brachial cervical femoral fibular gluteal inguinal lumbar occipital . oral popliteal pubic thoracic _ umbilical aaapaaz—F‘r-r‘aerfiaaaga 3. Classify each of the terms in the key of question 2 above into one of the large body regions indicated below. Insert the appropriate key letters on the answer blanks. b, C. d-f: g, 1h- ”:P I. appendicular a' 9' 'i’j’ k’ '1’ m’ 0’ q" 1‘ _ 2. axial Body Orientation, Direction, Planes, and Sections 4. Describe completely the standard human anatomical position. Slmé' ”WW-‘3“ 30893535 head “”430“ Pomed fonvord, arms hanging at sides with palms forward. 5. Define section. A car along an imaginary plane through the body wall or organ. 6. Several incomplete statements are listed below. Correctly complete each statement by choosing the appropriate anatomical term from the key. Record the key letters and/or terms on the correspondingly numbered blanks below. Key: a. anterior d inferior g. posterior j. superior b. distal e. lateral h. proximal k. transverse c. frontal f. medial i. sagittal In the anatomical position, the face and palms are on the _1_ body surface; the buttocks and shoulder blades are on the _2 body surface; and the top of the head is the most _3fi part of the body. The ears are _§_ and i to the shoulders and i to the nose. The heart is _7_ to the vertebral column (spine) and i to the lungs. The elbow is i to the fingers butJL to the shoulder. The abdominopelvic cavity is _l1_ to the thoracic cavity and _1_2_ to the spinal cavity. In humans, the dorsal surface can also be called the A surface; however, in quadruped animals, the dorsal surface is the _1_£l_ surface. If an incision cuts the heart into right and left parts, the section is a _15_ section; but if the heart is cut so that superior and inferior portions result, the section is fill section- You are told to cut a dissection animal along two planes so that both kidneys are observable in each section. The two sections that will always meet this requirement are the LL and i sec— tions. A section that demonstrates the continuity between the spinal and cranial cavities is a 41 section. 1. a; anterior 8. f; medial 14- j; superior 2. g; posterior 9. h; proximal 15. i; sogittal 3_ j.’ superior 10. b; distal 16. k; transverse 4. f; medial ' 11. d; ity‘erior 17. mfiotttal 5' j; superior . 12 a : anterior 13. k; Women's 6. e; lateral 13- g; posterior 19. i; sagittal 7 a; anterior 7. Correctly identify each of the body planes by inserting the appropriate term for each on the answer line below the drawing. (G) (a) (bl median (mid—sagittal) plane frontal plane transverse plane Transverse Sagittal Froutal section section section 9. Correctly identify each of the nine areas of the abdominal surface by inserting the appropriate term for each of the letters indi— cated in the drawing. a. epigoro'ic region in right hypochondrioc region is}? hypochoodnoc region (1 umbilical region right lumbar region I:- f. left lumbar region { ) hypogastric (pubic) region. (E) (f) 11. right iiioc reigon (9) (i) left iiioc region ('1) Body Cavities 10. Which body cavity would have to be opened for the following types of surgery or procodures? (Insert letter of key choice in same-numbered blank- More than One choice may apply.) Key: 3. abdominapelvic c. dorsal e. flioracic b. cranial d. spinal f. ventral of cm“ — l. surgery to remove a cancerous lung lobe — 4- appendectomy o.f (Lf . — 2. removal of the uterus, or womb — 5. stomach ulcer operation 17, c d, c 3. removal of a brain tumor — 6. delivery of preoperative “saddle" anesthesia 9.9 12. Which organ system would not be represented in any of the body cavities? SKELE WEI—M) WEN M; _ 13. What are the bony landmarks ofthe abdominopelvic cavity? kw:— 14. Which body cavity affords the least protection to its internal struclm'es? [AH-L 15. What is the fimction ofthe serous membranes ofdte body? cover? LU” -— EDuCE FRKCTtON 16. A nurse informs you that she is about to take blood from the antecubital region. What portion of your body should you pre- sent to her? flEM ’ 4mpdofi 5U RHCL‘ 17. The mouth, or oral cavity, and its extension, which stretches through the body to the arms, is not listed as an internal body cavity.Whyisthisso? 1T '5 HMHNUOUS WITH THE- WER’OE 18. Using the key choices, identify the small body cavities described below. Key: at middle ear cavity c. oral cavity c. synovial cavity b. nasal cavity d. orbital cavity ! I 1. holds the eyes in an anterior-facing position C 2. contains the tongue I —'E__,_, 3. lines a joint cavity —A_.___ 4. houses three tiny bones involved in hearing - contained within the nose ' Then, using either the box ' identify the descriptions on the foliowing page. (Some n... .:—... PI...-l. The Axial Skeleton The Skull 1. The skull is one of the major components of the axial skeleton. Name the other two. vertebrae and bony thorax What structures do each of these component areas protect? skull—protects the brain vertebraemprotects the spinal column bony thorax—protects thoracic cavity { heart £5 lungs) 2_ Define suture: Interlocking joints; immovable joints that connect bones of skull Mandible 3. With one exception, the skull bones are joined by sutures. Name the exception. -————-——H—-——_._—__—__—_F—_—J#__— 4. What are the four major sutures of the skull, and what bones do they connect? Sagittal—two parietal bones ————___________________ Coronal—parietals meet frontal bone ——_——_—_—__________— Sqnamoas—temporai meets parietal Lambdoid—wccipital meets parietal ——fi—~_—________—____H___ 5. Name the eight bones composing the cranium. Frontal Ethmoid Right temporal Left temporal Sphenoid Right parietal Lefi parietal Occipitai -.. 6. Give two possible functions of the sinuses. Lighten facial bones; act as resonance chambers for speech % 7 What is the orbit? The bony cavity containing the eyeball . . —-———-——___—.________ 8. Why can the Sphenoid bone be called the keystone of the cranial floor? MW width of the skull. —————_fi_____________ 9. Match the bone names in column B with the descriptions in column A. Column A _ Column B MEL—s..— 1. bone forming anterior cranium ethmoid zygomaric 2. cheekbone ' frontal maxilla 3. upper jaw hyoid ”as“! 4. beny' skeleton of nose lacrimal palarine 5. posterior roof of mouth mandible parietal 6. bone pair united by the sagittal suture maxilla temporal 7. site of jugular foramen and carotid canal nasal SPHBHOid 8. contains a “saddle” that houses the pituitary gland occipital lacrimal 9. allows tear ducts to pass palatine maxilla 10. forms most of hard palate parietal m— 11. superior and medial nasal conchae are part of this bone sphenoid temporal 12. site of external auditory meatus temporal sphenoid 13. has greater and lesser wings vomer “WI-‘1 14. its “holey” plate allows olfactory fibers to pass zygomatie maxillary 15. facial bone that contains a sinus frontal , sphenoid ’ and ethmoid 16. three cranial bones containing paranasal sinuses EFL—s.— 17. its oval-shaped protrusions articulate with the atlas m..— 18. spinal cord passes through a large opening in this bone fliL—._ 19. not really a skull bone ML.— 20. forms the chin L— 21. inferior part of nasal septum mandible auxiliary 22. contain alveoli bearing teeth sa in . corona! suture 8' a! suture alveolar margin Wm nasal coronal suture frontal foramen magnum parietal ' squamous Suture greater wing of sphenoid greater wing i ' __ .:-- of sphertoid “"311 ' . 5-11 inferior nasal concha temporal . . ‘ mlddle nasal concha of ethmord etkmozd mama! sagittal suture . middle nasal concha squamous suture zygomarrc irycerior nasal concha vomer maxilla alveolar margin ‘ , mandible The Vertebral Column 11. Using the key terms, correctly identify the vertebral areas in the diagram. Key: body lamina pedicle spinous process superior articular su rior articular rocess pe P arch transverse process vertebral arch vertebral foramen . .. pedicie body 12. The distinguishing characteristics of the vertebrae composing the vertebral column are noted below. Correctly identify each described structure or region by choosing a response from the key. Key: atlas coccyx sacrum axis lumbar vertebra thoracic vertebra cervical vertebra—typical cervical vertebrajypical 1. vertebral type with a forked spinous process arias 2. pivots on C2; lacks a body W— 3. bear facets for articulation with ribs; form part of bony thoracic cage M—_—— 4. forms a joint with the hip bone lumbar vertebra S. vertebra with blocklike body and short stout spinous process Mr— 6. “tail bone” “XI-5 7. articulates with the occipital condyles M— 8. five components; unfused W 9. twelve components; unfused sacrum 10. five components; fused 13. Identify as Specifically as possible each of the vertebrae types shown in the diagrams below. Also identify and label the fol— lowing markings on each: transverse processes, spirious process, body, superior articular processes, as well as the areas pro- vided with leaders. superior articular process transverse process transverse process inferior articular process spiny costai demifacer vertebral foramen process for head of rib spinous process Thoracic C ervicai 14. What kind of tissue makes up the intervertebral discs? Fibrocarriiage 15_ What is a herniated disc? A slipped disc; protruding cartilage fiom vertebra What problems might it cause? Pam and numbness __—_H_—__—_,_._—_._.—_.———————-——- Key: atlas atlas . axts axis a disc two thoracic vertebrae two lumbar vertebrae sacrum thoracic vertebrae lumbar vertebrae sac r um The Bony Thorax 17. The major components of the thorax (excluding the vertebral column) are the sternum and the rig“ 18. What is the general shape of the thoracic cage? M—m 19. Using the terms at the right, identify the regions and landmarks of the bony thorax. L1 venebra . body . costal cartilage . false ribs . floating ribs . manubrium sternum . true ribs . xiphoid process LHD I JIVIUUHI I: The Appendicular Skeleton Bones of the Pectoral Girdle and Upper Limb 1. Match the bone names or markings :in the key with the leader lines in the figure. The bones are numbered le8. coracmd Key: process - clavicle acromzon acromlon greater capitulum tubercle scapufa carpals clavicle coracoid process deltoid _ tuberosiry coronmd fossa coronoid process humerus deltoicl tuberosityr greater tubercle . lateral coronoidfossa epicendyie media! humerus capxmlum epicondyfe trachlea lateral epicondyle comnoid process medial epicondyle radial tuberosity metacarpals phalanges . ulna radms radial tuberosity radius 50210561 styloid process scapula process carpals styloid process trochlea metacarpals ulna phalanges 2. Whyr is the clavicle at risk to fracture when a person falls on his or her shoulder? 1t ‘5 a stenae r bone. 3. Why is there generally no problem in the arm clearing the widest dimensiori of the thoracic cage? The clavicle serves as a brace to hold the arm away from the tag of the thorax. 4. What is the total number of phalanges in the hand? 14 5. What is the total number of carpals in the wrist? 8 Bones of the Pelvic Girdle and Lower Limb 6. Compare the pectoral and pelvic girdles in terms of flexibility (range of motiori) 3110wed, scourity, and ability to bear weight. Flexibility: pectoral—more flexible Security: pelvic—more secure Weight-bearing ability: pelvic—better able to bear weight 7. What organs are protected, at least in part, by the pelvic girdle? Reproductive organs, “VI-’3‘"? bladder ("3d 20” of large intestine 8. Distinguish between the true pelvis and the false pelvis. false pelvis—superior; supports abdominal viscera true pelvis—inferior; limits delivery of baby 9. Use terms from the key to identify the bone markings on this illustration of an as coxa. iliam Key: iiiac crest acetabulum anterior superior iliac spine anterior greater sciatic notch superior iliac s ine . . p 111510 crest ilililll greater sciatic notch ischial spine ischial spine acetabttlttm . _ . ischlal tuberosrty ischt'al tuberosity ischium ischittm Pflbis obturator foramen obturator foramea PUbiS They do not have to bear as much weight as two-legged animals. 11. A person instinctively curls over the abdominal area in times of danger. Why? To protect internal 0" £0315 12. What does fang“ arches mean? The ligaments and tendons are weakened, allowing bones to ‘Ta1£." 13. Match the terms in the key with the appropriate leader lines on the diagram of the femur. Also decide if this bone is a right or left bane. medial condyle media! condyi'e intertrochanteric crest gluteal tuberosity lateral epicondyle lateral condyle Ewerconaylar The femur shown is the MM fossa member of the two femurs. Key: gluteal tuberosity greater trochanter head of femur intercondylar fossa intertrcchanteric crest lateral ccndyle lateral epiccndyle lesser trochanter medial condyle medial epicondyle neck of femur 14. Match the bone names and markings in the key with the leader lines in the figure. The bones are numbered 1—11. sacroiliac joint flium acetabulwn pubic neck symphysis greater :rochanter ischium :III 1' pubis | i lesser i trochamer femur I pateliar feign?! media! condyle co )1 e film la tibia medial maileolus calcaneus lateral mileolus talus ta rsals mtatarsals phalanges II] n‘..:...... C‘Ipu-u-du n tibial tuberosfty Key: acetabulum (rim) calcaneus femur fibula greater trochanter iljum ischium lateral condyle lateral malleolus lesser trochanter medial oondyle medial malleolus metatarsals neck patella phalanges pubic symphysis pubis sacroiliac joint talus tarsals tibia tibial tuberosity ...
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