test 4 study guide bio 110.docx - Chapter 40 Homeostasisinternal environment is maintained within normal limits cells maintain a constant environment

test 4 study guide bio 110.docx - Chapter 40...

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Chapter 40 Homeostasis—internal environment is maintained within normal limits, cells maintain a constant environment Controlled by the nervous system (faster) and endocrine system (slower) Conformers—needs less energy, maintain same composition as environment Regulators—requires more energy, works to maintain body different than environment (us) Set point—normal value for controlled variable Sensor—monitors particular variable Integrator—compares signals from the senor to set point Effector—compensates for deviations between actual value and set point Tissue—group of cells, tissues bind together to form organs, organs come together to form organ systems 4 different tissues 1. Muscle tissue (most abundant) a. Produces body movement, shortens and contracts b. Functional unit is sarcomere 2. Nervous tissue a. Network of neurons, initiates and conducts electrical signals b. Functional unit is neuron (stimulates muscle, glands, other neurons) 3. Epithelial tissue a. Sheets of packed cells, protects structures, asymmetrical, secretes, absorbs b. Classified by stratification or shape 4. Connective tissue (most diverse) a. forms extracellular matrix i. Blood, bone, cartilage, ligaments, and tendons 3 types of muscle tissue 1. Skeletal muscle a. Linked to bones, striated, multinucleated, voluntary control 2. Smooth muscle a. Surrounds tubes, involuntary control, not striated, single nuclei 3. Cardiac muscle a. Only in heart, involuntary control, striated, can have more than one nuclei Organs—need more than one type of tissue Intracellular fluid—cytoplasm inside the cell Extracellular fluid—interstitial fluid outside the cell and plasma Interstitial fluid—in-between cells, cytoplasm
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Prevents homeostatic responses from overcompensating Positive feedback loop—may accelerate a process, less common Neurotransmitters—small signaling molecules that are synthesized and stored in neurons, alters the activity of that cell Hormones—chemical messengers produced by the endocrine system of animals, long distance Osmotic homeostasis—regulating water within the body **know glucose homeostasis** Set point—how much glucose is circling in the body Integrator—compares signals from sensor to set point (hypothalamus) Sensors in blood vessels to detect blood sugar levels Effector—pancreas in glucose regulation Pancreas releases insulin when glucose levels are high Insulin acts on tissue cells glucose goes into the cells and allows blood sugar to decrease Insulin turns glucose into glycogen in the liver to store it because you have too much glucose in the blood Glucagon is released when blood sugar is low Glucagon acts on the liver and produces glucose Pancreas releases glucagon and insulin (hormones)
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Chapter 41 Nervous system—coordinated circuits of cells that sense internal and environmental changes and transmit signals that enable you to respond in an appropriate way Central nervous system—brain and spinal cord
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