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biochem 1st Test Review

biochem 1st Test Review - Test Review CHAPTER 1 1...

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Test Review CHAPTER 1 1. Understand that biological molecules are composed of a subset of all possible elements and functional groups a. Bioelements: i. Water: H, O …. Part of group of most abundant ii. Organics: C,H,O,N,P,S 1. small atoms top of Per. Tble. Interact more strongly than large atoms…most abundant iii. Ions: Na, K, Mg, Ca,Cl 1. Fluids in the body 2. Next most abundant iv. Trace elements: Fe, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn 1. Good at forming complexes 2. present in small quantities b. Functional groups i. ***Memorize ii. Linkages 1. Peptide bonds: formed through dehydration in the cells by connecting amino acids into a chain…occurs inside ribosome where no water is. 2. Ester linkages: between fatty acids and glycerol; for energy the bonds must be broken 2. Basic structures of the 4 types of small biomolelcules a. Amino Acids: simplest compounds i. Amino group and a carboxylic acid group ii. Different side chains determine type of AA b. Carbohydrates aka monosaccharides or sugars i. Empirical Formula: (CH2O)n ii. Know the structure of glucose c. Lipids: are poorly soluble in h2o because hydrocarbon nature i. A fatty acid or a sterol (like cholesterol) d. Nucleotides: intermediate for making nucleic acid like DNA i. A five-carbon sugar, a nitrogen-containing ring, and one or more phosphate groups ii. EX: ATP 3. Structure and Function of the 3 biological polymers (polymers made of monomers) a. Proteins aka polypeptides: i. Formation by linking of AA---dehydration rxn ii. Most functionally versatile of all biopolymers iii. Functions: mediate chemical reactions and providing structural support
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b. Nucleic Acids (RNA and DNA) i. Polymers of nucleotides linked by dehydr. rxns (4 different ones) ii. Nitrogenous ring compounds adenine, cytosine, guanine, and uracil iii. Functions: 1. Building blocks of DNA and RNA 2. Energy transfer and storage (ATP, GTP, UTP, CTP) 3. Energy level indicators (ATP, ADP, AMP) 4. Regulators (cAMP, cGMP) 5. Components of Coenzymes (NAD, NADP, FAD, FAM CoA) c. Polysaccharides—one or a few types of monosacch. Residues i. Function in essential cell functions 1. serving as fuel storage molecules 2. providing structural support ii. EX: starch and cellulose 4. Energy, Enthalpy, and entropy a. Free energy: Gibbs free energy “G” i. Two components: Enthalpy and Entropy b. Enthalpy, H, equivalent to the heat content of the system c. Entropy, S, is a measure of a systems disorder or randomness i. Varies with temperature—more disorder with rise in temp d. Relation: i. ∆G = ∆H - T∆S e. Spontaneity i. The overall ∆G must be negative ii. Free energy of products must be less than the free energy of the reactants iii. Spontaneous=exergonic nonspontaneous=endergonic iv. Rxn that occurs with w/ a decrease in enthalpy and increase in entropy is spontaneous at all temps b/c ∆G is always less than 0 5. Living Organisms and the laws of thermodynamics a. Life must be thermodynamically spontaneous b. Living organisms are not at equilibrium with the environment but rather couple unfavorable metabolic processes with favorable ones so that the net
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