Exam2reviewfall2007 - Exam II review sheet PROTEINS -...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–4. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Exam II review sheet PROTEINS - Proteins are made of amino acids (contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen ) - 20 different amino acids (essential, nonessential); Recognize names. Nonessential: alanine, cystenin, tyrosine, glutamine etc Essential: PVT MaT HILL Body can manufacture non-essential amino acids with enough kcal, protein in diet Essential amino acids must be obtained through the diet When proteins are subjected to acid, heat, and strong mechanical action they uncoil or denaturation. - Digestion / Absorption Stomach o Name enzyme responsible for protein breakdown pepsin o Functions of HCl Uncoils protein strands and activates stomach enzymes Activates pepsinogen to pepsin Small intestine o Name enzymes responsible for protein peptides amino acids. From pancreas: pancreatic and intestinal proteases On intestinal wall: intestinal tripeptidases and dipeptidases o Absorption: Into which circulatory system do amino acids enter after absorption? Enter the capillaries - Metabolism: Amino acids Protein synthesis – o All (essential / nonessential) amino acids needed at time of synthesis o DNA/ RNA are responsible for all protein synthesis, without RNA and DNA proteins would not be synthesized Energy o Amino acids are deaminated when used for energy…amino group cleaved off If NH2 to be discarded converted to ammonia then urea by the liver; Urea is a product of amino acid breakdown o Carbon fragments are then used in energy metabolism pathways (glycolysis, TCA cycle, Electron transport chain) Excess kcal in diet (protein needs met) – production of fat Deficiency of kcal in diet – broken down for energy Amino acids can be used to synthesize non-protein compounds o Niacin : B vitamins, from triptophane o Neurotransmitters: epinephrine & norepinephrine…from tyrosine---- serotonin from triptophane
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Exam II review sheet o Melanin: pigment from tyrosine
Background image of page 2
Exam II review sheet Describe functions of proteins: Structural: collagen, protein deposition (in cells, hair, and fingernails) Enzymes: facilitates chem. Reactions w/o being changed Hormones: examples are insulin, glucagons…both regulate blood glucose Fluid balance: proteins attract water, keep fluid in own dept. o 3 compartments: intercellular, intracellular, intravascular. Acid/base balance: act as buffers (resist change in pH with addition of acid/base) (define) to help maintain pH of the blood Transporters: blood / membrane bound – examples of blood transporters o Hemoglobin- transports oxygen from lungs to tissues—in RBCs Antibodies: (immunity) produced in response to foreign invader Blood clotting: lead to final fibrin clot -Protein quality: 2 factors that influence protein quality? o
Background image of page 3

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Image of page 4
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

This note was uploaded on 03/20/2008 for the course NTR 311 taught by Professor Lydiasteinman during the Fall '08 term at University of Texas at Austin.

Page1 / 9

Exam2reviewfall2007 - Exam II review sheet PROTEINS -...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 4. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online