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Unformatted text preview: HDF 313 2007 Hazen Study Guide: Exam 2 The exam will cover Chapters 5, 7, 9 & 11 of the text, and the lecture materials on Infant Cognitive Development, Toddler Language Development, and Cognitive Development from Preschool to Middle Childhood, including the lecture on Symbolic Representation in Early Childhood. If you can identify all of concepts and answer all the questions, you should be able to answer every question on the exam correctly. Make sure you can identify examples of the concepts, as well as define them. Chapter 5; Lecture on Infant Cognitive Development Concepts: Piagets 4 main stages and description of each; adaptation, assimilation vs. accommodation, schemes, equilibration, functional assimilation, generalized assimilation, circular reactions (primary, secondary, & tertiary), coordination of schemes (means-end behavior), symbolic (representational) thought, deferred imitation, object permanence, A-not-B error (in infant object permanance development), decalage, neo-nativist perspective, recognition vs. recall memory, infantile amnesia, autobiographical memory Piagets 4 main stages : 1) Sensorimotor : An infant processes from reflexive, instinctual action at birth to the beginning of symbolic thought. The infant constructs an understanding of the world by coordinating sensory experiences with physical action. (birth to 2) 2) Preoperational : The child begins to represent the world with words and images; these words and images reflect increased symbolic thinking and go beyond the connection of sensory information and physical actions. (2 to 7) 3) Concrete Operational : The child can now reason logically about concrete events and classify objects into different sets. (7 to 11) 4) Formal Operational : The adolescent reasons in more abstract and logical ways. Thought is more idealistic. (11 to 15) Adaptation : In Piagets theory, process by which children change to function more effectively in their environment. Made up of 2 processes : assimilation and accommodation. Younger babies assimilate more than they accommodate Assimilation : involves applying an existing capability without modification to various situations. Accommodation : modifying an existing strategy or skill to meet a new demand of the environment. Schemes : sensorimotor; underlying cognitive structures that can be applied to a variety of situations. Sucking schemes, grasping schemes, looking schemes, etc. Equilibration : a mechanism to keep cognitive development moving forward; a self-regulatory process that produces increasingly effective adaptations Stage 1: These built-in responses are the first schemes, and develop through: Functional assimilation- exercise a scheme....
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- Fall '08