1b.1 Introduction to information systems in general.doc - Systems Analysis Fundamentals Introduction Information Systems Section 1 Introduction to

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Systems Analysis FundamentalsIntroduction: Information SystemsSection 1: Introduction to Information Systems Information versus Data Data is raw facts, observations, or business transactions. Data is the basic items you enter into an information systems. For example Customer ID, product colour, Date of Birth etc. We define information as data that has been processed into a meaningful useful context for specific end–users. Thusdata + process = information. This process might involve summarising, manipulation and organisation. If Data = Student Name, Gender and Date of Birth then Information might mean 50% of all students are under twenty, or all mature students are female. Information should be managed correctly by an organisation, just as it manages other resources. Although information is all around us, it is not free. It costs a lot of money to organise and maintain information. The amount of information a typical organisation stores has increased at alarming rates. One may wonder is all this storage really necessary. However the strategic use of information should not be taken for granted. Information is not just a by-product – it fuels business and can be the critical factor in determining the success or failure of a business. Systems Analysis – Introduction 1
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Section 2: Information Systems Pyramid We will now look at the different types of information systems that are used in a typical organisation. Remember an organisation maybe a regular company, an educational institution, a hotel etc. We will break an organisation into three levels:Level 1 Operational Level Operational control forms the bottom tier of three-tiered management. Operations managers make decisions using predetermined rules that have predictable outcomes when implemented correctly. Operations management is the most clear-cut, with managers having a high degree of certainty in their decision-making environment. They make decisions that affect implementation in work scheduling, inventory control, shipping, receiving, and control of processes such as production. Basic tasks of the organisation are accomplished on time and in accordance with organisational constraints.Operations managers need internal information that is of a repetitive, low-level nature. They are highly dependent on information that captures current performance and they are large users of online, real-time information resources. Their need for past performance information and periodic information is only moderate. Information systems designed for operations managers are valuable ifthey can provide information to help in controlling operations in a timely manner. The basic tasks ofIS at this level are to support business processes. There are a number of different types of IS at operational level, namely: Transaction processing systems (TPS).
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  • Spring '16
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