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2360_Chapter_5_F17.pptx

2360_Chapter_5_F17.pptx - Carbohydr ates(CHO Chapter 5 NUTR...

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Carbohydr ates (CHO) Chapter 5 NUTR 2360 Ms. Markides
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Learning Outcomes – PART 1 Identify the major types of carbohydrates and give examples of food sources for each List/describe alternative sweeteners Describe recommendations for carbohydrate intake and health risks caused by low or excessive intakes 3
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Carbohydrat es Composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen Produced by plants via photosynthesis Simple carbohydrates Monosaccharides and Disaccharides Polysaccharides (more complex) Starch, Glycogen, and Fiber 4
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5 Glucose stored in leaves Starch/fiber Protein
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6 Food Sources Fruits Vegetables Grains Milk Sweets
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Kinds of Carbohydrates 7 Simple Complex Monosaccharides (glucose, fructose, galactose) Oligosaccharides (raffinose, stachyose) Disaccharides (lactose, sucrose, maltose) Polysaccharides (glycogen, fiber, starch)
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Monosaccharides 8 (CH 2 O) n Hexoses (6 carbon) Pentoses (5 Carbon) Glucose (Blood sugar) Ribose (RNA) Fructose (High-fructose corn syrup) Deoxyribose (DNA) Galactose (Part of lactose) Sugar Alcohols (Xylitol, mannitol and sorbitol)
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Figure 5.3 Ring structure C 6 H 12 O 6
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Glucose Most abundant Basic unit of complex carbohydrates Mildly sweet “Blood sugar” 10
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Fructose Sweetest monosaccharide Fruits, vegetables, honey and HFCS 11
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Galactose Does not occur as a single monosaccharide in foods Only as part of lactose in milk 12
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Disaccharides Two monosaccharides linked by alpha or beta bonds via a condensation reaction 13 Sucro se: Glucose + Fructose alpha bond Malto se: Glucose + Glucose alpha bond Lacto se: Glucose + Galactose beta bond
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Combining Molecules 14 Condensation: A process by which smaller, chemically simple compounds are joined and water (H 2 O) is released
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Sucrose Glucose + Fructose in alpha bond Food sources: Table sugar, Sugar beet, Sugar cane Enzyme Sucrase
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