Chapter+2_Biological+Perspective.pptx

Chapter+2_Biological+Perspective.pptx - THE BIOLOGICAL...

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THE BIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE Chapter 2
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THE NEURON The basic cell that makes up the nervous system and that receives and sends messages within that system. The last great neurological discovery of the 19 th century!
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HISTORICAL ORIGINS: THE NEURON Neuron —The structural unit in the brain responsible  for the functioning of the brain. Nerve net theory   —The idea that the nervous  system consists of a network of connected nerves. Neuronal theory   —The idea that the nervous  system is made up of individual nerve cells. Which theory is accepted today? Why? Golgi – developed the stain Ramon y Cajal – mapped nervous tissue
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OTHER CELLS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM: GLIAL CELLS Glial cells One-tenth the size of neurons Ten times as numerous as neurons! Types of Glial cells Astrocytes —provide physical support to neurons, nourishment and other functions. New evidence suggests that astrocytes also integrate neuronal messages and release neurotransmitters that affect the sensitivity of synapses.
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Types of Glial cells (cont.) Microglial cells —remove debris Oligodendrocytes —produce myelin which covers the axons of neurons in CNS Schwann cells —produce myelin which covers the axons of neurons in PNS Multiple sclerosis—destroys oligodendrocytes CELLS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM: GLIAL CELLS
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REPAIRING NERVE FIBERS “Schwann cells produce myelin for the neurons of the body …Myelin wraps around the shaft of the axons, forming an insulating and protective sheath… Myelin from Schwann cells has a unique feature that can serve as a tunnel through which damaged nerve fibers can reconnect and repair themselves.”
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RECORDING THE RESTING MEMBRANE POTENTIAL OF A NEURON
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GENERATING THE MESSAGE: THE NEURAL IMPULSE At rest: more positive on the outside, more negative on the inside.
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