The important role played by local government as the level of public administration closest to the people has only grown with the dynamic changes in social systems brought about by ongoing rapid development of information technology and the growing diversity of people’s values. In countries around the world, more than ever before, it is becoming increasingly difficult for monolithic, standardized central governments to deal appropriately with the growing diversity of issues arising out of the process of social change and development. Conversely, the capabilities possessed by various more nimble and innovative local government systems are coming to be more widely recognized and praised. While the mechanisms and administration of local autonomy vary from country to country, to a large degree all local government systems can be explained in terms of the same set of major elements. The main objective of this paper is to mainly compare Japanese and Zambian models of government Building appropriate local governance structures requires bridging the supply and demand side so that local governments can be downwardly accountable to citizens. A precondition for downward accountability is to simultaneously empower local governments and citizens. That requires setting priorities and sequencing decentralization reforms to strengthen accountability on both the supply and demand sides. Drawing on the separate sets of literature on the three topics of fiscal, administrative, and political decentralization. Representative local governments with meaningful discretionary powers are the basic institutions of decentralization. Public officials have discretion to use their best judgment in applying rules and policies to meet the public interest. The premise is that public officials are knowledgeable and experienced in applying rules to particular situations, increasing the effectiveness of rules and policies, and improving performance. They are flexible and responsive to public needs and demands (Basha, 2011). Japan’s local autonomy is based on the Constitution of Japan, which was adopted in 1946 and took effect in the following year. It regards local autonomy as indispensable to democracy, clearly placing local governments within the national government structure and guaranteeing their autonomy. Japan’s system of local government is founded on two main principles. First, it provides for the right to establish autonomous local public entities that are, to a certain extent, independent of the national government. Second, it embraces the idea of “citizens’ government,” by which residents of these local areas participate in and handle, to varying degrees, activities of 1 | P a g e
the local public entities. Japan’s system of local government originates in the pre–World War II period, primarily from the concept of autonomous local entities. After the war, the concept of citizens’ government was incorporated to a greater extent. Japan’s fundamental principles of
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- Spring '17