soc 2240 take home essay 2.docx - Tyler Sands SN#250707685 Soc 2240E 2 Can we describe rural communities in Canada as examples of Emile Durkheims

soc 2240 take home essay 2.docx - Tyler Sands SN#250707685...

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Tyler SandsSN #250707685Soc 2240E2. Can we describe rural communitiesin Canada as examples of Emile Durkheim’s organic solidarity or mechanical solidarity? Please keep in mind that there are different types of communities that may be found in rural areas in Canada. Please give two examples that illustrate your argument.Emile Durkheim, known as one of the founding fathers of Sociology, is very influential with his contributions to social theory and the way we look at societies today. Durkheim contributed largely to structural functionalism - how society is formed and functions. His focus on macro-level social facts influenced the way we look at ‘punishments’ for offenders. For example, with his Repressive and Restitutive law. Durkheim looked at social facts and society through a scientific lens and had a large focus on culture and solidarity. His contributions have had a large impact on how sociologists study culture today. In this paper, I will illustrate Emile Durkheim’s theoretical approach and I will describing what mechanical and organic solidarity is. Lastly, I will be describing rural communities in Canada as examples of Emile Durkheim’s organic solidarity and mechanical solidarity and the way they function and are formed.Firstly, Durkheim believed that social life should be an empirical study by observing and measuring what he calledsocial facts.Social facts are the social structures and cultural norms and values that are external to, and coercive of, actors”(Ritzer, 2008, pg. 78). For example, students are controlled by social structures such as the university bureaucracy as well as the norms and values of Canadian society, which place great importance on a college education and social class. Secondly, Durkheim believed society could be understood only by observing individuals in interaction with one another; "society is not a mere sum of individuals" (as cited in
Ritzer, 2008, p.79). Durkheim argued that there are two different types of social facts—material and non-material. Ritzer states that “material social facts, such as styles of architecture, forms oftechnology, and legal codes, are the easier to understand of the two because they are directly observable.” (Pg. 79) Majority of Durkheim’s arguments lie within the study of nonmaterial social facts. This is what sociologists today call norms and values. They are good examples of what Durkheim meant by nonmaterial social facts. Durkheim claimed to an extent that nonmaterial social facts are found in the minds of individuals.Since nonmaterial social facts are so important to Durkheim, I will examine four differenttypes of nonmaterial social facts. They are morality, collective conscience, collective representations, and social currents. Durkheim’s view of morality had two aspects. First, Durkheim was convinced that morality is a social fact. Thus meaning that morality can be empirically studied, is external to the individual, is coercive of the individual, and is explained by other social facts. The second aspect was studies were driven by concern about moral ‘health’

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