History of Photo Test 1

History of Photo Test 1 - 15th/16th Century Camera Obscura...

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15 th /16 th Century: Camera Obscura Italy (first documentation) -an aperture (small hole) takes light from the outside and refracts it onto a flat surface in a dark room -Used originally as a drawing tool (main usage) and also as an illusionist tool -Dellaporta spoke a lot of the camera obscura -Small box versions (portable) developed 17 th Century: Camera Lucida – 1668 -was similar to camera obscura, but light was refracted through prism to make it stronger so it could be seen in daylight (boxes no longer necessary). Process -most chemical processes involved silver (which made the image stay) Thomas Wedgewood and Davie (1802_ -did some successful experiments at making an image stick on white leather; used silver nitrate. Images were not permanent Joseph Nicephore-Niepce (Southern France) -Successfully made an image stick. -Lithography came around in 1813 as the most immediate and effective way to reproduce images: less expensive, made with wax crayon onto a wax surface. -tried to find a way to copy engravings onto pewter -1816: made their first image without having a way to fix it effectively -Pope Pious VII-first image by Niepce that stuck; made by petroleum; hardened when exposed to light by the camera obscura; the plate (pewter or silver) put in a window outside with a seven hour exposure -1826; partnered with Louis Jacques Mande Daguerre Degeurre -was a painter/illusionist first (painted backdrops in operas) -1830: legal partnership with Niepce -1831: Daguerre discovered Silver Iodide to be light sensitive -1833: Niepce died, Daguerre worked with his heirs -1835: Effectiveness of mercury vapor to develop a latent image. Wasn’t permanent; went away in bright light. -1837: Table salt was discovered and used as a good fixer for Mercury/Iodide mixture -1838: large campaign started to raise $$ -1939-Aragot and Daguerre worked out a negotiation that he would “give over” ‘his’ discovery to France Jan 7, 1939: Discovery was announced
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Daguerreotype Image Process -polished piece of copper that has been silver plated -sheet is placed face down in a box of iodine crystals -vapor comes off of crystals and iodizes with silver -placed in the camera obscura within one hour -exposed and then held over vaporizing mercury -vaporizes mercury onto silver iodized emulsion and adheres to make a latent image -is then washed and toned in gold-gives it a warmer ton and more permanent -Finally, it is placed in glass Daguerreotype image: Very detailed/very fine grain -Huge Int’l media frenzy erupted -August 19,1839-Formal International announcement of device -Pamphlet was published about the process in 29 Editions and six different languages -Daguerreotype spread very quickly William Henry Faux Talbot -Created a negative/positive process -carried out a variety of experiments related to imagery -January 31, 1839-Talbot gave a speech describing his process, people were not impressed with it. Callotype-1840: Negative/Positive Process-was patented
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This test prep was uploaded on 03/20/2008 for the course CNPH 240 taught by Professor Muellner during the Spring '08 term at Ithaca College.

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History of Photo Test 1 - 15th/16th Century Camera Obscura...

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