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test 3 study guide

test 3 study guide - CHAPTER 10 1 Compare normal reverse...

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CHAPTER 10 1. Compare normal, reverse, and strike-slip faults. a. Normal- hanging wall goes down relative to footwall. Due to crustal stretching. b. Reverse- hanging wall goes up relative to footwall. Due to crustal shortening. Slope (dip) of fault is steep. c. Strike-slip – no vertical motion. One block slides (laterally) past the other. Fault surface is nearly vertical. 2. Describe elastic rebound theory and the concept of stick slip behavior. a. Between faulting stress builds up. Stress overcomes friction on an existing fault and the fault slips again. Stress drops and elastic strain stored in rock decreases. Friction stops movement until stress builds up enough to cause the rock to slip again. b. The start stop movement on a fault is known as the stick slip behavior. 3. compare brittle and ductile deformation a. Brittle deformation is when a material subjected to stress cracks or fractures. b. Ductile deformation is when a material is subjected to stress but it is warm or weak and bends and flows instead of breaking. 4. Describe the motion of the four types of seismic waves. Which ones are body waves and which ones are surface waves. a. Body waves are P waves which are compressional and S waves which are shear (up and down) body waves. b. Surface waves are R waves which cause the ground to ripple up and down and L waves which cause the ground to ripple back and forth. 5. Explain how the vertical and horizontal components of an earthquake are detected on a seismograph. a. Vertical- a heavy weight is suspended from a spring. The spring connects to a sturdy frame which has been bolted to the ground. A pen extends sideways from the weight and touches a vertically rotating cylinder of paper that has been connected to the seismograph frame. When an earthquake comes and moves up and down the seismograph moves up and down too but the pen stays at the same place because of the weight it is connected to. b. Horizontal- works the same way except the paper cylinder is horizontal and the weight it suspended from a wire. Page 287. 6. Explain the contrast among the different scales used to describe the size of an earthquake. a. Mercalli intensity scale- defines the intensity of an earthquake by the amount of damage it causes –that is by destructiveness. b. Magnitude- a number that indicates its relative size as determined by measuring the maximum amplitude of ground motion recorded by a seismograph.
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c. Richter scale- measuring the amplitude of the largest deflection, on a seismograph, generated in response to seismic waves that have a period of one second as recorded by a seismic station 100 km from the epicenter. 7. How does seismicity on mid ocean ridges compare with seismicity at convergent or transform boundaries? Do all earthquakes occur at plate boundaries?
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