C3 - NE.ppt - THE NEW ENGLAND COLONIES Chapter 3 4 Academic...

This preview shows page 1 out of 74 pages.

Unformatted text preview: THE NEW ENGLAND COLONIES Chapter 3, 4 Academic Vocabulary • • • • • • • -1. Five Points of Calvinism -8. Anne Hutchinson -2. Mayflower Compact -29. Roger Williams 3. Massachusetts Bay Colony 10. William Penn 4. Great English Migration 11. Salem Witch Trials -5. King Phillips’ War 12. Half-Way Covenant 6. Salutary Neglect -7. William Bradford/Myles Standish 5 Points of Calvinism 1. Total depravity (Original Sin) 2. Unconditional election (God's Election) 3. Limited atonement (Particular Redemption) 4. Irresistible grace (Effectual Calling) 5. Perseverance of the Saints TOTAL DEPRAVITY • Belief that sin permeates all parts of person( thinking, emotion, and will) • Romans 5:12 • Mark 4:11 UNCONDITIONAL ELECTION • Predestination = God selected those going to Heaven from those not before the world’s creation • The “Elect” = going to Heaven but not through good works • Only God knows why one is part of the “Elect” • Romans 9:15 Romans 9:21 LIMITED ATONEMENT • Jesus died only to save the “Elect” • Matthew 26:28 Ephesians 5:25 IRRESTIBALE GRACE • All “Elect” will eventually come to know God • They cannot avoid their predestination • John 6:44 Romans 8:14 1 Peter 5:10 PERSEVERANCE OF THE ELECT • All “Elect” will go to Heaven • Their gift of grace will never be forfeit • Philippians 1:6 Romans 8:28-39 John 6:39 Covenant Theology “ Covenant of Grace” : between Puritan communities and God. “ Social Covenant” : Between members of Puritan communities with each other. Required mutual watchfulness. No toleration of deviance or disorder. No privacy. Separatists (Pilgrims) vs. Puritans Separatists(Pilgrims) Separatist (Pilgrims) Beliefs: believed only “ visible saints” [those who prove to their fellow Puritans their elect status] should be admitted to church membership. Don’t agree with sharing pews with the “ damned.” Therefore, they believed in a total break from the Church of England. The Mayflower 1620 a group of 102 people [half Separatists] Negotiated with the Virginia Company to settle in its jurisdiction. Non-Separatists included Captain Myles Standish. Plymouth Bay far outside the domain of the Virginia Company. Became squatters without legal right to land & specific authority to establish a The Mayflower Compact November 11, 1620 Written and signed before the Pilgrims disembarked from the ship. Not a constitution, but an agreement to form a crude govt. and submit to majority rule. Signed by 41 adult males. Led to adult male settlers meeting in assemblies to make laws in town meetings. Mayflower Compact • IN THE NAME OF GOD, AMEN. We, whose names are underwritten, the Loyal Subjects of our dread Sovereign Lord King James, by the Grace of God, of Great Britain, France, and Ireland, King, Defender of the Faith, &c. Having undertaken for the Glory of God, and Advancement of the Christian Faith, and the Honour of our King and Country, a Voyage to plant the first Colony in the northern Parts of Virginia; Do by these Presents, solemnly and mutually, in the Presence of God and one another, covenant and combine ourselves together into a civil Body Politick, for our better Ordering and Preservation, and Furtherance of the Ends aforesaid: And by Virtue hereof do enact, constitute, and frame, such just and equal Laws, Ordinances, Acts, Constitutions, and Officers, from time to time, as shall be thought most meet and convenient for the general Good of the Colony; unto which we promise all due Submission and Obedience. IN WITNESS whereof we have hereunto subscribed our names at Cape-Cod the eleventh of November, in the Reign of our Sovereign Lord King James, of England, France, and Ireland, the eighteenth, and of Scotland the fifty-fourth, Anno Domini; 1620. Sources of Puritan Migration That First Year…. Winter of 1620-1621 Only 44 out of the original 102 survived. None chose to leave in 1621 when the Mayflower sailed back. Fall of 1621 First “ Thanksgivin g.” Colony survived with fur [especially beaver], fish, and lumber. Plymouth stayed small and economically unimportant. 1691 only 7,000 people The First Thanksgiving? In 1863, President Lincoln proclaimed Thanksgiving an official US holiday . William Bradford Self-taught scholar. Chosen governor of Plymouth 30 times in yearly elections. Worried about settlements of non-Puritans springing up nearby and corrupting Puritan society. A Model of Christian Charity The Puritans Calvinism Institutes of the Christian Religion Puritans: Want to totally reform [purify] the Church of England. Grew impatient with the slow process of Protestant Reformation back in England. The MA Bay Colony 1629 non-Separatists got a royal (Puritans) charter to form the MA Bay Co. Wanted to escape attacks by conservatives in the Church of England. They didn’ t want to leave the Church, just its “ impurities.” 1630 1,000 people set off in 11 wellstocked ships (“Colony in a kit”) Established a colony with Boston as its hub. “ Great Migration” of the 1630s Turmoil in England [leading to the English Civil War] sent about 70,000 Puritans to America. John Winthrop Well-off attorney and manor lord in England. Became 1st governor of Massachusetts. Believed that he had a “ calling” from God to lead there. Served as governor or deputy-governor We shall be as a city on a hill.. Characteristics of New England Settlements Low mortality average life expectancy was 70 years of age. Many extended families. Average 6 children per family. Average age at marriage: Women – 22 years old Men – 27 years old. Patriarchy Authoritarian male father figures controlled each household. Patriarchal ministers and magistrates controlled church congregations and household patriarchs. Puritan “ Rebels” Young, popular minister in Salem. Argued for a full break with the Anglican Church. Condemned MA Bay Charter. • Did not give fair compensation to Indians. Denied authority of civil govt. to regulate religious behavior. Roger Williams 1635 found guilty of preaching newe & dangerous opinions and was exiled. Rhode Island 1636 Roger Williams fled there. MA Bay Puritans had wanted to exile him to England to prevent him from founding a competing colony. Remarkable political freedom in Providence, RI • Universal manhood suffrage later restricted by a property qualification. • Opposed to special privilege of any kind freedom of opportunity for all. RI becomes known as the “ Sewer” because it is seen by the Puritans as a dumping ground for unbelievers and religious dissenters More liberal than Puritan “ Rebels” Intelligent, strong-willed, well-spoken woman. Threatened patriarchal control. Antinomialism [direct revelation] Means “ against the law.” Carried to logical extremes Puritan doctrine of predestination. Anne Hutchinson Holy life was no sure sign of salvation. Truly saved didn’ t need to obey the law of either God or man. Anne Hutchinson’s Trial 1638 she confounded the Puritan leaders for days. Eventually bragged that she had received her beliefs DIRECTLY from God. Direct revelation was even more serious than the heresy of antinomianism. WHY?? Puritan leaders banished her she & her family traveled to RI and later to NY. She and all but one member of her family were killed in Indian attack John Winthrop saw God’ s hand in this! New England Spreads Out New England Colonies, 1650 Population of the New England Colonies Indians in New England • • • • Anglo-Indian relations in New England The New England Indians The Pequot War King Philip’s War Puritans vs. Native Americans Wampanoags weak in NE as epidemics wiped out ¾ of pop’ l. Natives [near Plymouth] befriended the settlers with Squanto aid. 1621 Chief Massasoit signed treaty with the settlers & Thanksgiving in 1621. King Philip’ s War (1675-1676} Only hope for Native Americans to unite Metacom [King Philip to white settlers] Massasoit’ s son united Indians and staged coordinated attacks on white settlements throughout New England. Frontier settlements forced to retreat to Boston. King Philip’ s War (1675-1676} Mass wins war of extermination Tricked Metacom into treaty talk then beheaded and drawn and quartered. His son and wife sold into slavery. Never a serious threat in New England again!! Chesapeake & New England C/C Chesapeake New England Death Rate Short, high infant mortality 70 years not uncommon # of orphans, widows Higher infant mortality (25%), more remarriage 10% infant mort, most know grandparents Sex ratio women > men Roughly equal # of Indentured Possibly as high as 75% Much lower Major reason for settlement (Both joint stock companies) Search for gold, profits Religion, profits Voting Landowners “All freemen” 40% vote eligible Church & State No separation (Anglican) Theocracy-total separation Arrival to America Largely alone Family groups with larger community (“Colony in a kit”) Native Relations Strong, enduring threat Natives previously weakened, later eliminated much quicker than Chesapeake Population Comparisons: New England v. the Chesapeake New York Settling the Middle [or “ Restoration” ] Colonies Old Netherlanders at New Netherlands 1600s Golden Age of Dutch history. Major commercial and naval power. Challenging England on the seas. 3 major Anglo-Dutch Wars Major colonial power. New Netherlands New Netherlands founded in the Hudson River area (16231624) Established by Dutch West India Company for quick-profit fur trade. Company paid little attention to the colony. Manhattan [New Amsterdam] Purchased by Company for pennies per (22,000) acre. New Amsterdam, 1660 Characteristics of New Amsterdam: Aristocratic patroonships [feudal estates granted to promoters who would settle 50 people on them]. Cosmopolitan diverse population with many different languages. New York Manors & Land Grants Patroonships Dutch Residue in New York Early 20 Dutch Revival c Building in NYC. New York City seal. Names Harlem, Brooklyn Architecture gambrel roof Customs Easter eggs, Santa Claus, waffles, bowling, sleighing, skating, kolf [golf]. Pennsylvani a The Quakers Called Quakers because they “ quaked” during intense religious practices. They offended religious & secular leaders in England. Refused to pay taxes to support the Church of England. They met without paid clergy Believed all were children of God refused to treat the upper classes with deference. Keep hats on. Addressed them as commoners ” thees” /“ thous.” Wouldn’ t take oaths. Quaker meeting America, 8th Edition Copyright © 2010 W.W. Norton & Company William Penn Aristocratic Englishman. Embraced Quakerism after military service. 1681 he received a grant from king to establish a colony.. Named Pennsylvania [“ Penn’ s Woodland” ]. He sent out paid agents and advertised for settlers his pamphlets were pretty honest. Liberal land policy attracted many immigrants. Penn & Native Americans Bought [didn’ t simply take] land from Indians. Quakers went among the Indians unarmed. BUT…….. non-Quaker Europeans flooded PA Treated native peoples poorly. This undermined the actions of the Quakers! Government of Pennsylvania Representative assembly elected by landowners. No tax-supported church. Freedom of worship guaranteed to all. Forced to deny right to vote & hold office to Catholics & Jews by English govt. Death penalty only for treason & murder. Compared to 200 capital crimes in England! Pennsylvanian Society Attracted many different (religious, ethnic peoples) No provision for military defense. No restrictions on immigration. No slavery!! “ Blue Laws” [sumptuary laws] against stage plays, cards, dice, excessive hilarity, etc. A society that gave its citizens economic opportunity, civil liberty, & religious freedom!! Urban Population Growth 1650 - 1775 New Jersey — PA’ s Neighbor 1664 aristocratic proprietors rcvd. the area from the Duke of York. Many New Englanders [because of worn out soil] moved to NJ. 1674 West NJ sold to Quakers. East NJ eventually acquired by Quakers. 1702 E & W NJ combined into NJ and created one colony. Delaware Delaware — PA’ s Neighbor Named after Lord De La Warr [harsh military governor of VA in 1610]. Closely associated with Penn’ s colony. 1703 granted its own assembly. Remained under the control of PA until the American Revolution. Ethnic Groups The Carolinas The West Indies Way Station to Mainland America 1670 a group of small English farmers from the West Indies arrived in Carolina. squeezed out by sugar barons. Brought a few black slaves and a model of the Barbados slave code with them. The King granted Carolina to 8 supporters [Lord Proprietors]. hoped to use Carolina to supply their plantations in Barbados with food and export wine, silk, and olive oil to Europe. The West Indies, 1600–1800 America, 8th Edition Copyright © 2010 W.W. Norton & Company Settling the “ Lower South” Colonizing the Carolinas Carolina close economic ties to the West Indies. Many settlers from the West Indies. Used Savannah Indians to enslave other Indians then deported to West Indies 1707 Savannah Indians decided to migrate to PA. Carolinians killed rest by 1710. Port of Charles Town, SC busiest port in the South. City with aristocratic feel. Religious toleration for profits thus, diverse inhabitants. Crops of the Carolinas: Rice Rice, #1 export and exotic food in England. Grown in Africa, so planters imported West African slaves. Slaves’ genetic trait that made them immune to malaria. By 1710 black slaves were a majority in Carolina. American Long Grain Rice Crops of the Carolinas: main use for Indigo indigo was as a dye for cloth Today in the US, the main use for indigo is a dye for cotton work clothes & blue jeans. Rice & Indigo Exports from SC & GA: 16981775 Conflict With Spanish Florida Catholic Spain hated the mass of Protestants on their borders. Anglo-Spanish Wars The Spanish conducted border raids on Carolina. Either inciting local Native Americans to attack or attacking themselves. By 1700 Carolina was too strong to be wiped out by the Spanish! The Emergence of North Carolina Northern part of Carolina shared a border with VA VA dominated by aristocratic planters who were generally Church of England members. Dissenters from VA moved south to northern Carolina. Poor farmers with little need for slaves. Religious dissenters. Distinctive traits of North Carolinians Irreligious & hospitable to pirates. Strong spirit of resistance to authority. 1712 NC officially separated from SC. Georgia 18c Southern Colonies Late-Coming Georgia Founded in 1733. Last of the 13 colonies. Named in honor of King George II. Founded by James Oglethorpe. Savannah, Georgia America, 8th Edition Copyright © 2010 W.W. Norton & Company Georgia--The “ Buffer” Colony Chief Purpose of Creating Georgia: As a “ buffer” between the valuable Carolinas & Spanish Florida & French Louisiana. Export silk and wine. A haven for debtors thrown in to prison. Determined to keep slavery out! Slavery found in GA by 1750. The Port City of Savannah Diverse community. All Christians except Catholics enjoyed religious toleration. Missionaries worked among debtors and Indians. Summary • Religious dissension key reason for New England settlement • 13 Colonies established with significant differences between the 3 major regions • All 13 Colonies enjoy more local rule than England – “Salutary Neglect” ...
View Full Document

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture