4. ASI 320 - Proteins and Amino Acids.pdf

4. ASI 320 - Proteins and Amino Acids.pdf - ASI 320 UNIT 4...

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ASI 320 1/30/17 J.M.Lattimer 1 UNIT 4 PROTEIN AND AMINO ACID NUTRITION UNIT 4 PROTEIN AND AMINO ACID NUTRITION Student Objectives: Know the basic chemical features of proteins and amino acids Understand the differences and similarities in protein and amino acid nutrition between ruminants and non- ruminants Know the characteristics of various protein and amino acid supplements Be able to articulate the concept of limiting amino acids Know how protein and amino acid sources are compared and valued Understand the concepts of ruminal and post-ruminal protein degradability in ruminants Protein and Amino Acid Chemistry More than 20 different AA are significant to animal nutrition All AA have a similar basic structure chemical identities are determined by atoms contained in the side chain (represented as R ) Peptide Amino Acid NH 3 CH C O R O C NH 2 CH NH 2 C O R O C CH NH 2 C O R O C CH C O R O - C Peptide Bond
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ASI 320 1/30/17 J.M.Lattimer 2 Ruminants and Non - Ruminants Similarities: All mammals have dietary requirements for protein The bulk of protein requirements for all species are non-specific any protein molecule, regardless of amino acid composition, can help meet animal requirements for protein Differences: In addition to general protein requirements, non-ruminants have dietary requirements for specific amino acids (______________amino acids) - protein __________is usually of high relative importance Protein fed to ruminants is largely digested and metabolized in the rumen (through microbial action) to form ____________cell protein protein quality is usually of _________relative importance Ruminal microbes can also synthesize proteins from ______-protein nitrogen and pass these along to the host Select Sources of Protein for Ruminant and Non - Ruminant Animals Soybean Meal Most __________protein source in U.S. A byproduct of soybean ______extraction Whole soybeans are ground and heated, then the oil is chemically extracted with solvents Soybeans can also be crushed or expelled to physically extract the oil Similar procedures are used for other oilseed meals, like canola or sunflower seeds
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ASI 320 1/30/17 J.M.Lattimer 3 Soybean Meal Soybean meal is the standard of comparison for all other protein sources for the following reasons: Relatively high crude protein content Balances the nutritional shortcomings of corn Low _________ per unit of crude protein or lysine Widely ___________ _____________ Consistent chemical composition Few issues with __________and anti-nutrients Few issues with processing and handling characteristics Solvent Extraction Whole Soybean Seed Soybean Meats Defatted Flakes Soybean Meal 48% or 44% CP Cracking and De-Hulling Conditioning, Flaking, & Extraction Solvent Removal White Flakes Hulls Hulls Soybean Oil Toasting Specialty Products Expeller Extraction Oil is squeezed out of the seed using hydraulic pressure Oil recovery is less complete than with solvent extraction
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ASI 320 1/30/17 J.M.Lattimer 4 U.S. Soybean Meal Usage 50.4% 23.7% 12.2% 5.7% 5.5% 2.5%
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