assyno madam laura.docx - B.Explain the various types of shortcut methods used in observing others People tend to follow a number of shortcut methods

assyno madam laura.docx - B.Explain the various types of...

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B).Explain the various types of shortcut methods used in observing others People tend to follow a number of shortcut methods when observing others and making judgment of others activities. These techniques are to some extent valuable and allow us to make accurate perceptions rapidly and provide valid data for making predictions. However, they are not foolproof. However, people often rely on them and follow them blindly. They can get us into trouble, particularly if you happen to hold higher level position and required to make effective decision making. An understanding of this shortcut can be helpful in recognizing when they can result in significant distortions. While observing others in our day-to-day life, people tend to commit errors due to faulty perceptual process and make a wrong decision. This has to be avoided. There are five types of errors or short-cut methods which are frequently used by the individuals. They are: i) Selective Perception ii) Projection iii) Stereotyping iv) Halo Effect v) Contrast Effect Selective perception It is a tendency to observe people selectively and accordingly interpret based on their interest, background, experience and attitudes. For example, a production manager is always likely to identify the need to strengthen the production system; the marketing manager will focus only on the marketing research and sales promotions activities. In general, we tend to notice things which are similar to us. For instance, we are more likely to notice the type of cars which are similar to ours. The simplest way of avoiding hasty or wrong decision being made due to selective perception is to seek other people’s perceptions of “reality” in the same situation in order to make a better assessment of the situation. Projection It is a tendency to assign one’s own personal attributes to others. For instance, a manager who is corrupt will tend to project that all others are also corrupt like him. Similarly, a manager who loves challenging work might project that all others like challenging work. Many times, this is not true, and the manager who tries to enrich all the jobs as challenging might be leading to wrong motivational technique for other employees. When managers engage in projection, they compromise their ability to respond to individual differences. They tend to see people as more
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homogeneous than they really are. Thus, managers should guard themselves against perceptual biases through projection. Stereotyping It is a tendency to judge people based on the perception of the group to which he belongs. We tend to attribute favorable or unfavorable characteristics to the individual based on upon widely held generalization about the group. For instance, we perceive that Japanese in general are hardworking, quality conscious and industrious, and based on that we generalize that all Japanese are like that, but in reality it may not be so. There are some Japanese who may not possess the above mentioned characteristics. Similarly we assume that women in general are
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  • Fall '16
  • Laura Mamuli

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