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Chapter 2 Chemistry and Measurements Guided Notes.pdf

Chapter 2 Chemistry and Measurements Guided Notes.pdf -...

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1 CHEM 1151 Guided Notes Chapter 2 Chemistry and Measurements Vocab to Know! Celsius (°C) temperature scale centimeter conversion factor cubic centimeter (cm 3 , cc) density equality exact number gram (g) international system of units (SI) kelvin (k) temperature scale kilogram (kg) liter (L) mass measured number meter (m) metric system milliliter (mL) prefix second (s) significant figures (SFs, sig figs) temperature volume 2.1 Units of Measurement Learning Goal Write the names and abbreviations for the metric or SI units used in measurements of length, volume, mass, temperature, and time. Units of Measurement Scientists use the _______________ ________________ of measurement adopted a modification of the metric system called the ________________ __________________ ____ ______________________ as a worldwide standard. an official system of measurement used throughout the world for units of length, volume, mass, temperature, and time. Length: Meter (m) and Centimeter (cm) is measured using a meter stick. uses the unit _________________ in both the metric and SI systems. uses _________________________________ for smaller units of length. Volume: Liter (L) and Milliliter (mL) is the _________________ occupied by a substance. uses the __________________________ in the metric system. Graduated cylinders are used to measure small volumes. Chapter 2 Preview 2.1 Units of Measurement 2.2 Measured Numbers and Significant Figures 2.3 Significant Figures in Calculations 2.4 Prefixes and Equalities 2.5 Writing Conversion Factors 2.6 Problem Solving Using Unit Conversion 2.7 Density 1 m = 1 m = 1 m = 2.54 cm = 1 L = 1 L = 946 mL =
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2 Mass: Gram (g) and Kilogram (kg) a measure of the quantity of material it contains. measured in grams (g) for small masses. The mass of a nickel is 5.01 g on an electronic scale. Temperature: Celsius ( ° C) and Kelvin (K) Water freezes: 32 °F 0 ° C The Kelvin scale for temperature begins at the lowest possible temperature, 0 K. A thermometer is used to measure temperature. Time: Second (s) The second (s) is the correct metric and SI unit for time. The standard measure for 1 s is an atomic clock. Study Check Identify the SI units for each of the following: A. The SI unit for volume is the_____________________________________ B. The SI unit for mass is the _______________________________________ C. The SI unit for length is the ______________________________________ D. The SI unit for temperature is the _________________________________ 2.2 Measured Numbers and Significant Figures Learning Goal Identify a number as measured or exact; determine the number of significant figures in a measured number. Length is measured by observing the marked lines at the end of a ruler. The last digit in your measurement is an ______________________, obtained by visually dividing the space between the marked lines. Measured Numbers Measured numbers are the numbers obtained when you measure a quantity such as your height, weight, or temperature. To write a measured number , 1. observe the numerical values of marked lines 2. estimate value of the numbers between marks 3. use the estimated number as the final number in your measured number 1 kg = 1 kg = 454 g = 1 day = 1 h = 1 min =
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3 Writing Measured Numbers for Length The lengths of the objects measured at left are (a) _______________ (b) _______________ (c) _______________
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