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Q3 Research Paper - Google Docs.pdf - WOR 5 Analyze the...

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WOR 5 - Analyze the motives behind, and results of, economic, military, and diplomatic initiatives aimed at expanding US power and territory in the Western Hemisphere in the years between independence and the Civil War. Ethan Boll AP U.S. History January 23, 2017
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1 America’s founding fathers left their newborn nation struggling with immense uncertainties and deficient policies. The Articles of Confederation were inadequate, the country was drowning in 75.6 million dollars of debt by 1790, and partisan sectionalism was so great that Federalist lawmakers were brazen enough to pass the Sedition Act in 1798—a direct violation of the Bill of Rights. America, to say the least, had a long road ahead of itself on becoming a major player on 1 the world stage. However, events such as the Louisiana Purchase, the War of 1812, and the Transportation and Market Revolutions contributed to the first stages of this journey during the years between the American Revolution and the Civil War. These diplomatic, military, and economic initiatives increased U.S. power and territory, and resulted in the emergence of a modern, industrialized nation with a place at the forefront of global politics. The Louisiana Purchase, like so many other historic milestones, drew its motives from economic distress. Eight years prior to the purchase, an American representative named Thomas Pinckney secured a deal with Spain known as the Treaty of San Lorenzo or Pinckney’s Treaty. The agreement granted American ships the right of deposit in New Orleans as well as the ability to freely navigate the Mississippi River and to transport goods through the port of New Orleans free of charge. The significance of this treaty was monumental for not only American farmers on the 2 frontier but also for East coast merchants, midwest cattle grazers, and southern planters; as Thomas Jefferson illustrated in a letter to Robert Livingston: “It is New Orleans, through which the produce of three eighths of our territory must pass to market, and from its fertility it will ere long yield more 1 David M. Kennedy, Lizabeth Cohen and Thomas Andrew Bailey, The American Pageant: A History of the American People, 14th Edition, (Boston: Wadsworth Cengage Learning, 2010), 217. 2 "Milestones: 1784–1800 - Treaty of San Lorenzo/ Pinckney’s Treaty, 1795," Department of the Historian, Accessed January 22, 2017, https://history.state.gov/milestones/1784-1800/pickney-treaty.
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2 than half of our whole produce and contain more than half our inhabitants.” It came as no surprise, 3 that when Spain withdrew the right of deposit so long enjoyed by American producers, “American pioneers talked wildly of descending upon New Orleans, rifles in hand.” Spain’s retraction of 4 Pinckney’s Treaty foreshadowed Spain’s sale of Louisiana to France. If France were to possess the Mississippi River Valley and New Orleans, Thomas Jefferson’s plans of eventually conquering the area would be thwarted by Napoleon’s armies. Jefferson immediately sent Robert Livingston, a
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