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Full-Report_CSTR.docx - 1.0 ABSTRACT The objectives of this...

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1.0 ABSTRACT The objectives of this experiment are to study the effects of flow rate on saponification reaction of ethyl acetate and sodium hydroxide in CSTR, and also to study the effect of yield on saponification in CSTR in series. Before start the experiment, we are required to prepare 1-L of 0.1 M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and 1-L of 0.1 M sodium acetate (Na(Ac)) solution to generate the calibration curve for conversion versus conductivity. The conductivity values are measured by mixing different volume of NaOH and Na(Ac) which indicates 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% conversion of NaOH. Next, for the experiment, we are required to determine the conversion for different flowrates for the CSTRs in series. 10-L of 0.1 M Et(Ac) solution and 10-L if 0.1 NaOH solution are prepared and filled into Tank 1 and Tank 2 respectively. The flowrate and stirrer speeds are set to 100mL/min and 200 rpm. The conductivity values in the 3 reactors are recorded every 2 minutes until steady state is achieved. The experiment is repeated by altering the flowrate to 150 mL/min. The conversion in each reactor is determined based on the calibration curve of conversion versus conductivity. As a conclusion, we can see that the conversion increases from reactor 1 to reactor 3 which indicates the conductivity reduces across these 3 reactors. This is because the concentration of reactant decreases during the reaction by converting to product. So, fewer ions present in reactor 3 compared to reactor 1 and 2 results in lower conductivity. However, as the results showing, the conversion of the reactant when the volumetric flow rate is 100 mL/min is higher than that when the volumetric flow rate is 150 mL/min. Increment in flowrate makes the reaction time shorter, so low conversion can be achieved in each reactor. Low conversion results to high conductivity due to the present of ions of reactant. The advantages of CSTR are it relatively cheap and simplicity to construct compare with batch reactor and PFR and it also easy in controlling temperature in each stage since each operates in a stationary state. Continuous stirred-tank reactors are most commonly used in industrial processing, primarily in homogeneous liquid-phase flow reactions, where constant agitation is required. 1
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2.0 METHODOLOGY 2.1 Preparation of calibration curve for Conversion vs. Conductivity. 2.2 Experimental Procedure for Saponication of CSTR in series. 2 The calibration curve of conversion vs. conductivity was plotted to determine the slope and y-axis intercept. 1-L of 0.1 M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution and 1-L of 0.1 M sodium acetate (Na(Ac)) solution were prepared. The conductivity for each conversion values were determined by mixing the following solutions into 100 mL of deionised water. 100 mL NaOH for 0% conversion 75 mL NaOH + 25 mL Na(Ac) for 25% conversion 50 mL NaOH + 50 mL Na(Ac) for 50% conversion 25 mL NaOH + 75 mL Na(Ac) for 75 % conversion 100 mL Na(Ac) for 100% conversion The experiment was repeated by changing the flow rate to 150 mL/min.
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