Psychology 101 notes

Psychology 101 notes - Psychology 101 Psychology I. Birth...

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Psychology 101 Psychology I. Birth of a New Science (1/15/08) o Developed prior to 1879 (birthdate) – lots of physiology and philosophy o Physiology + Philosophy = Psychology o Wilhelm Wundt (1832 – 1920) University of Leipzig, Germany Established the first laboratory for the study of psychology in 1879 and psychology is born Wundt defined psychology as the “scientific study of conscious experience” o Leipzig, the place to study psychology o Graduates of Wundt’s program set up new labs across Europe and North America o G. Stanley Hall (1846 – 1924) Johns Hopkins University Established the first psychology lab in the U.S. in 1883 o Between 1883 and 1893, 24 new labs in N. America o North imposed severe penalties in South (south was in no position to start new initiatives like psychology labs b/c they lost civil war and were in reconstruction period) o 2 intellectual schools of thought regarding the science of psychology Structuralism – led by Edward Titchener Functionalism – led by William James Principles of Psychology (2 Vols.) o Structuralists focused on analyzing consciousness into basic elements Introspection – careful, systematic observations of one’s own conscious experience o Functionalists focused on investigating the function or purpose of consciousness o Today, we are all functionalists o Who won the battle? Most historians give the edge to James and the functionalists Today, psychologists are not really categorized as structuralists or functionalists Applied psychology and Behaviorism – descendants of functionalism Behaviorism – early 1900’s; stem from functionalists The next major school of thought to influence the development of psychology John B. Watson: USA; founder of behaviorism According to him, psychology is the scientific study of behavior Behavior = overt or observable responses or activities Radical reorientation of psychology as a science of observable behavior The “blank slate” idea and emphasis on nurture o Nature and Nurture Role of human nature is now an important part of psychology and neither nurture nor nature alone determine thought and behavior – they interact
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Watson’s Extreme view of the role of Nurture Everything is nurture o Behaviorism revisited: B.F. Skinner (Harvard University) Environmental factors determine behavior Responses that lead to positive outcomes are repeated Responses that lead to negative outcomes are not repeated o Freud’s Ideas Sigmund Freud, Austria (Jewish guy…time where Nazi’s were invading) Founder of PSYCHOANALYSIS that has influenced psychology Unconscious sexual and aggressive motivation are the causes of much behavior and thought o Humanistic Psychology: Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow Dissatisfaction with behaviorism and psychoanalysis (both are deterministic theories…they are determined for us…we can’t control them) We have free will and are not robots
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Psychology 101 notes - Psychology 101 Psychology I. Birth...

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