psych2 - Performance Enhancement, Sport Psychology, and...

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Performance Enhancement, Sport Psychology, and Science I. Ergogenic Aids -substances (water, caffeine) and phenomena (music) that enhance athletic performance -a work producing aid 1. Ways of Knowing Effectiveness (a) Non-Scientific 1. Intuition 2. Personal Experience 3. Testimonial or anecdote 4. Group Majority Opinion/Behavior 5. Opinion(s) Expert(s) (b) Scientific 1. Describe-observed case or group 2. Predict- correlational studies Prediction is possible when there is a reliable relationship between two variables Relationships between variables can be evaluated by: o Examining a scatter plot o Computing a statistical test statistic such as the Pearson Correlation, which is denoted by the symbol “r” 3. Explain- experiments II. Correlation Research -a correlation describes the relationship between two variables in terms of: (a) direction (b) magnitude (effect size) 1 . Pearson Correlation ® Ranges from -1.0 – 1.0 Interpretation-scientists are primarily interested in the magnitude (aka strength) of relationships Strong r = -.70 to -1.00 Moderate r = -.30 to -.69 Weak r = -.00 to -.29 2. Some Factors that influence correlations Correlations are often biased (higher or lower than the “true” relationship) when the number of test subjects is small (<30) Correlations are often biased when data are obtained from only a small portion of the range of possible scores 3. One Mistake to avoid in interpreting correlational evidence
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Even a “perfect” correlation ( r = 1.0 ) between two variables does NOT mean that one variable causes the other! Only certain types of experiments performed with key controls and comparisons provide convincing evidence for a cause-effect relationship III. Experimental Research -manipulating an independent variable on a dependent variable
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psych2 - Performance Enhancement, Sport Psychology, and...

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