anat review - Ch 1 Anatomical planes -internal structure is...

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Ch 1 •Anatomical planes -internal structure is often depicted along one of the three mutually perpendicular planes through the body: the sagittal, frontal, and transverse planes •Body Region -the body is divided into a central axial region (head, neck, trunk) and appendicular region (limbs) -the abdomen can be divided into either 4 quadrants or 9 regions for describing the locations of structures, symptoms, or abnormal conditions -each limb is divided into 5 regions from proximal to distal •Body Cavities and Membranes -the body is internally divided into the dorsal and ventral cavity. The organs in these cavities are called the viscera -the body cavities are lined with serous membranes: the meninges around the brain and spinal cord, pleurae around the lungs, pericardium around the heart, and peritoneum in the abdominal cavity -the last 3 of these membranes have outer and inner parietal and visceral layers, respectively, with lubricating fluid between the layers -retroperitoneal organs such as the kidneys and pancreas lie between the peritoneum and body wall rather than within the peritoneal cavity -the peritoneum continues as a mesentery that suspends the intestines and other organs from the dorsal body wall, a serosa over the surface of some abdominal organs, and two omenta attached to the stomach •Organ Systems -the body has 11 organ systems: the integument, skeletal, and muscular systems for protection, support and movement -the nervous and endocrine systems for internal communication -the circulatory and lymphatic systems for fluid transport -the respiratory, urinary, and digestive systems for input and output -the reproductive for reproducing -the body also has an immune system for protection from disease, but this is not an organ system; it is a collection of cells that populate all the organ systems Ch 3 •Concepts of cellular structure -cytology is the study of cellular structure -cell shapes are described as squamous, cuboidal, columnar -a cell is an enclosed plasma membrane and contains usually one nucleus -the cytoplasm is everything between the plasma membrane and the nucleus. It consists of clear fluid, the cytosol or intracellular fluid (ICF), and embedded organelles and other structures. Fluid external to the cell is extracellular fluid (ECF) •The Cell Surface -the plasma membrane is made out of lipid and protein -the most abundant lipid molecules in the membrane are phospholipids, which form a bilayer with their hydrophilic heads facing the ICF and ECF.
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-membrane proteins are called transmembrane proteins if they are imbedded in the lipid bilayer and extend all the way through it, and peripheral proteins, if they only cling to the intracellular surface of the lipid bilayer -second messenger systems are systems for generating an internal cellular signal in response to an external one. One of the best known examples results in the formation of a second messenger, cyclic AMP (cAMP), within the cell where certain exrtacellular signaling molecules bind to a receptor protein
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This note was uploaded on 03/20/2008 for the course CBIO 2200 taught by Professor Wenzel during the Spring '08 term at University of Georgia Athens.

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anat review - Ch 1 Anatomical planes -internal structure is...

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