Study Guide – Exam II
*Know all key terms defined in the powerpoint slides
What has changed in the last 40-50 years that has an effect our health
How have food serving sizes changed in the last 20 years
What diseases are associated with being overweight/obese?
What % of the adult population in the US is considered obese?
Basal Metabolic rate – what is it, how it relates to healthy weight/nutrition
BMR is the rate at which the body uses energy to maintain basic life functions.
Successful strategies for healthy weight:
Exercise and make sure that there is an energy balance with caloric intake and expenditure.
MyPyramid – what are the components:
Grains, vegetables, fruits, milk, meat and beans, physical activity.
How to individualize your diet plan
Estimate your energy needs on gender, height, current weight, and levels of activity.
How much water should you drink daily? Why is it important for your body?
2 to 3 liters or 8-12 glasses daily. Needed to digest, absorb, and transport nutrients; medium in which biochemical
reactions can occur; regulate body temp; dilutes wastes and makes less toxic; carries wastes out of the body;
cushions body cells; lubricates moving parts.
Why are fats important in the diet? What are they types of fat? What are the sources of fat?
Fats are a concentrated energy source. Fats in food provide essential fatty acids, play a role in production of other
fatty acids and vitamin D, and provide the major material for cell membranes. Transport the fat soluble vitamins
and assist in their absorption. They provide an emergency reserve of energy. Also shock absorb to protect organs,
and insulate body membranes.
remain stable (solid) at room temperature; found in beef, pork, and whole milk products. These
tend to raise levels of cholesterol and increases LDL which pose threat to CVD. Unsaturated lower LDL and some
(monounsaturated) also raise HDL. Cholesterol is produced in the liver and in excess can clog arteries and cause
liquid at room temp but solidify somewhat when refrigerated; plant sources
liquid at room temp and in the refrigerator (oils); plant sources; fish—salmon, trout, and
Trans Fatty Acids
are produced by hydrogenation and are solid at room temperature; prolongs shelf-life.
Raise LDLs and lower HDLs.
Omega-3 Fatty Acids:
slow clotting of blood, decrease triglyceride levels, and lower blood pressure. Come from
fish and nuts.
Omega-6 Fatty Acids:
provide linoleic acid, consumed too much, and is found in corn, soybean, and cottonseed
Difference between carbohydrates and dietary fiber?