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Anatomy Test Three

Anatomy Test Three - 2.14.2007 1 The Circulatory System a...

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2.14.2007 1. The Circulatory System a) Blood is liquid connective tissue b) Vasculature (blood vessels) c) Heart 2. Blood is the medium through which materials are transported to cells. It also helps to stabilize pH and body temperature, as well as serving an immune function. a) Plasma b) Formed elements i. erythrocytes (RBCs) (5 million/mm3) The normal hematocrit (& of RBCs) for females is ~35-45% (women have a lesser number b/c of menstruation and college aged students don’t eat a well balanced meal less iron; for males it is ~40-54% ii. leukocytes (WBCs)(5000-10,000/mm3) iii. thrombocytes (platelets)(250,000/mm3) calcium is important * When blood drawn: 45% of whole blood: Erythrocytes <1% of whole blood: buffy coat: leukocytes and platelets 55% of whole blood: plasma 3. Blood Plasma a) 91% water b) 7% plasma proteins (almost all are manufactured in the liver) i. Albumins 60% as you age, levels drop off which affects drug metabolism ii. Globulins 36% a) immunoglobulins b) transport globulins Beta globulins: *Transferrin: transfers iron (if all transferrin is bound to iron, you’re ok. If there’s a lot of free transferrin, you need to be eating more food that contains iron.) iii. Fibrinogen: 4% *See table 18.3 c) 1.5%: this percentage makes a huge difference in physiology i. electrolytes ii. nutrients iii. enzymes iv. hormones v. waste products vi. gases 4. Blood Viscosity and Osmolarity a) Viscosity = resistance to flow (thickness); Consideration for cardiovascular function: increased viscosity leads to increased risk b) Osmolarity = solutes in blood; increased viscosity = increased osmolarity i. colloid osmotic pressure; Ex) big boy M&Ms, plain ones like electrolytes, peanut one’s like albumin in blood—get more thirsty, draw out a lot more water out of blood ii. effect on water balance iii. ascites HUGE inflammation of stomach due to fluids can see a wave of fluid in stomach (imbalance of osmotic pressure. fluid leaves blood stream and into interstitial tissue, around face and abdomen, may be yellow due to jaundice (liver disease), may need a drain for excess fluid, most often from alcoholism drain when belly button is hard iv. kwashiorkor when undernourished children have large, swollen bellies, due to imbalance in albumin (protein wasted), not enough protein in diet and in blood, lack of osmotic pressure in nterstitial tissue around abdomen
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5. Formed Elements Are Produced Through Hemopoiesis. 1. Pluripotent stem cells (hemocytoblasts) already designated to be a certain thing i. Proerythroblasts (rbc) ii. Megakaryoblasts (thrombocytes) iii. Monoblasts (monocytes) iv. Myeloblasts (neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils) v. Lymphoblasts (lymphocytes) * Myelocyte: WBC 6. Erythrocytes a) 99% of formed elements; 5 mil/ml; 25 trillion total; most abundant b) Enucleate (no nucleus); ATP through glycolysis (no mitochondria would use up all the oxygen that it’s supposed to be transporting) c) Discoid in shape (b/c they’ve lost their nucleus so they look like a flat doughnut) d) 120 day life span whatever you do to your RBC today it’ll continue for 120 days e) Function: carry O 2 (and CO 2 ) i. Hemoglobin (33% total volume)
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