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Nuclear ChemistryNuclear Chemistry20.1 Nuclei and Nuclear Reactions20.2Nuclear StabilityPatterns of Nuclear StabilityNuclear Binding Energy20 3Natural Radioactivity20.3Natural RadioactivityKinetics of Radioactive DecayDating Based on Radioactive Decay20 4li20.4Nuclear Transmutation20.5Nuclear Fission20.6Nuclear Fusion20.7Use of IsotopesChemical AnalysisIsotopes in MedicineIsotopes in Medicine20.8Biological Effects of Radiation
Nuclei and Nuclear ReactionsNuclei and Nuclear ReactionsThe symbols for subatomic particles include:11H11pproton10nneutron01e01electron01e01positron4242Heαparticle
Nuclei and Nuclear ReactionsNuclei and Nuclear ReactionsIn balancing a nuclear reaction, simply balance the total of allatomic numbers and total of all mass numbers for the products andreactants.4He212Po208Pb+2He84Po82Pb+Mass number:212208 + 4 = 212Mass number:Atomic number:21220842128482 + 2 = 84
Worked Example 20.1Identify the missing species X in each of the following nuclear equations:(a)XPbPo2088221284SttD tithbfthkiX bi(b)(c)01-9038XSr01-188OXStrategyDetermine the mass number for the unknown species, X, by summingthe mass numbers on both sides of the equation:Σreactant mass numbers =Σproduct mass numbersΣreactant mass numbers =Σproduct mass numbersSimilarly, determine the atomic number for the unknown species:Σreactant atomic numbers =Σproduct atomic numbersUse the mass number and atomic number to determine the identity of theunknown species.
Worked Example 20.1 (cont.)Solution(a) 212 = (208 + mass number of X); mass number of X = 4.84 = (82 + atomic number of X); atomic number of X = 2.X =:(b) 90 = (mass number of X + 0); mass number of X = 90.α42αPbPo42208822128438 = [atomic number of X + (1)]; atomic number of X = 39.X =:Y903901-90399038YSr(c) Mass number of X = (18 + 0); mass number of X = 18.Atomic number of X = (8 + 1); atomic number of X = 9X =:F18901-188189OFThink About ItThe rules of summation that we apply to balance nuclearequations can be thought of as theconservation of mass numberand theconservation of atomic number.
Radioactive DecaySpontaneous nuclear reactions5 kinds41)Emission of-particles:42Hee.g.23892U23490Th +42He929022) Emission of-particles:0–1e= electrons.e.g.13153I13154Xe +0–1e-particle emission converts a neutron to a proton:10n11p +0–1e3) Emission ofrays:03) Emission of-rays:00-ray emission changes neither atomic number nor mass.
4) Emission of positronsRadioactive Decay(+-particles):0+1ee.g.116C115B +01ePositron emission converts a proton to a neutron:11p10n +01ePositrons have a short lifetime because they recombine withelectrons and annihilate:0e +0e2001e +0–1e2005)Electron Capture:an electron from the orbitals surrounding thenucleus can be captured:e.g.8137Rb +0–1e8136KrElectron capture converts a proton to a neutron:11p +0–1e10n
Detecting radiationDetecting radiationIn airparticles travel several cmIn air,-particles travel several cm.In Al,-particles travel 10-3mm.In air-particles travel 10mIn air,-particles travel 10m.In Al,-particles travel 0.5mm.In Al,-rays travel 5-10 cm.
NUCLEAR STABILITY
Nuclear StabilityNuclear StabilityThe following rules are useful in gauging whether or not a particular

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VANDERSLUYS,LORSCHMID,KYLEM

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