Chapter 9 BIO 117 Notes.docx

Chapter 9 BIO 117 Notes.docx - , molecules

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Metabolism and Respiration   Energy flows through an ecosystem, chemicals cycle through   Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration are cyclic and reversible to each other   Catabolic pathways in organisms release stored energy by breaking down complex  molecules    Fuels for a cell are compounds that contain exergonic reactions,   organic molecules store energy in bonds   Enzymes systematically degrade organic molecules into less energy products and some  energy used to do work while the rest is released as heat   Fermentation- Partial degradation of sugars or other organic molecules with out oxygen  use   Aerobic Respiration-  Molecules are degraded with consumption of oxygen, carried out by most eukaryotes and prokaryotes  Anaerobic Respiration-  Organic molecules broken down with out use of oxygen,  chemical energy is harvested  Cellular Respiration -  Can refer to both processes, set of reactions to convert chemical  energy into ATP (energy)   Organic Compounds + Oxygen=> CO2 + H2O+ Energy  Fuels for respiration include carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. Starch is a major source of  carbohydrates for animals   Cellular respiration can be followed by looking at each way glucose is degraded in the  reaction  Cellular respiration is Exergonic ( -686Kcal)=Delta G is negative, Spontaneous   Catabolism does not directly perform work, it functions like a chemical drive shaft,   Cell also must regenerate ATP and ADP+Pi  Catabolic Processes that decompose organic molecules (glucose) yield energy by  transferring electrons during chemical reactions  MOLECULAR OXYGEN FROM ATMOSPHERE ENTERS CYCLE AND LEAVES  AS WATER  OXYGEN IN GLUCOSE BECOMES OXYGEN IN CO2   Redox Reactions   Reactions or elements releases stored energy in organic molecules  Oxidation-Reduction Reactions (Redox) involve a loss or gain of electrons / transfer   Oxidation- Loss of electrons from a substance(losing energy according to review 
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Reduction- Gain of electrons from a substance(gaining energy according to review   ADDING=REDUCTION         LOSING=OXIDATION  Electron donor-Reducting Agent ( Reduces other reactant ) Electron Acceptor- Oxidizing  Agent       (oxidizes other reactant)  Other redox reactions, involve change is degree of electron sharing in covalent bonds ie  methane oxidation  O2 is more electronegative in the methane reaction and pulls stronger on the electrons  having lower potential energy,   Electrons move towards lower potential energy/higher electronegativty because it is more
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