APUSH Chapter 27 - Empire and Expansion.pdf - APUSH Chapter...

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Unformatted text preview: APUSH​ ​Chapter​ ​27​ ​-​ ​Empire​ ​and​ ​Expansion Chapter​ ​Outline I.​ ​America​ ​Turns​ ​Outward 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. From​ ​the​ ​end​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Civil​ ​War​ ​to​ ​the​ ​1880s,​ ​the​ ​United​ ​States​ ​was very​ ​isolationist,​ ​but​ ​in​ ​the​ ​1890s,​ ​due​ ​to​ ​rising​ ​exports, manufacturing​ ​capability,​ ​power,​ ​and​ ​wealth,​ ​it​ ​began​ ​to​ ​expand​ ​onto the​ ​world​ ​stage,​ ​using​ ​overseas​ ​markets​ ​to​ ​sell​ ​its​ ​goods. ○ The​ ​“yellow​ ​press”​ ​or​ ​“yellow​ ​journalism” ○ of​ ​Joseph​ ​Pulitzer​ ​and​ ​William​ ​Randolph​ ​Hearst​ ​also​ ​influenced​ ​overseas ○ expansion,​ ​as​ ​did​ ​missionaries​ ​inspired​ ​by​ ​Reverend​ ​Josiah ○ Strong’s​ ​Our​ ​Country:​ ​It’s​ ​Possible​ ​Future​ ​and​ ​Its​ ​Present ○ Crisis.​ ​Strong​ ​spoke​ ​for​ ​civilizing​ ​and​ ​Christianizing​ ​savages. ○ People​ ​were​ ​interpreting​ ​Darwin’s​ ​theory​ ​of ○ survival-of-the-fittest​ ​to​ ​mean​ ​that​ ​the​ ​United​ ​States​ ​was​ ​the​ ​fittest ○ and​ ​needed​ ​to​ ​take​ ​over​ ​other​ ​nations​ ​to​ ​improve​ ​them. ■ Such​ ​events​ ​already​ ​were​ ​happening,​ ​as​ ​Europeans​ ​had​ ​carved​ ​up​ ​Africa​ ​and​ ​China​ ​by this​ ​time. ■ In​ ​America,​ ​Captain​ ​Alfred​ ​Thayer​ ​Mahan’s​ ​1890​ ​book,​ ​The​ ​Influence​ ​of​ ​Sea​ ​Power Upon​ ​History,​ ​1660-1783​, ■ argued​ ​that​ ​every​ ​successful​ ​world​ ​power​ ​once​ ​held​ ​a​ ​great​ ​navy.​ ​This ■ book​ ​helped​ ​start​ ​a​ ​naval​ ​race​ ​among​ ​the​ ​great​ ​powers​ ​and​ ​moved​ ​the ■ U.S.​ ​to​ ​naval​ ​supremacy.​ ​It​ ​motivated​ ​the​ ​U.S.​ ​to​ ​look​ ​to​ ​expanding ■ overseas. James​ ​G.​ ​Blaine​ ​pushed​ ​his​ ​“Big​ ​Sister”​ ​policy,​ ​which sought​ ​better​ ​relations​ ​with​ ​Latin​ ​America,​ ​and​ ​in​ ​1889,​ ​he​ ​presided over​ ​the​ ​first​ ​Pan-American​ ​Conference,​ ​held​ ​in​ ​Washington​ ​D.C. However,​ ​in​ ​other​ ​diplomatic​ ​affairs,​ ​America​ ​and​ ​Germany​ ​almost went​ ​to​ ​war​ ​over​ ​the​ ​Samoan​ ​Islands​ ​(over​ ​whom​ ​could​ ​build​ ​a​ ​naval​ ​base there),​ ​while​ ​Italy​ ​and​ ​America​ ​almost​ ​fought​ ​due​ ​to​ ​the​ ​lynching​ ​of​ ​11 Italians​ ​in​ ​New​ ​Orleans,​ ​and​ ​the​ ​U.S.​ ​and​ ​Chile​ ​almost​ ​went​ ​to​ ​war after​ ​the​ ​deaths​ ​of​ ​two​ ​American​ ​sailors​ ​at​ ​Valparaiso​ ​in​ ​1892. ○ The​ ​new​ ​aggressive​ ​mood​ ​was​ ​also​ ​shown​ ​by​ ​the​ ​U.S.—Canadian ○ argument​ ​over​ ​seal​ ​hunting​ ​near​ ​the​ ​Pribilof​ ​Islands​ ​off​ ​the​ ​coast​ ​of ○ Alaska. An​ ​incident​ ​with​ ​Venezuela​ ​and​ ​Britain​ ​wound​ ​up​ ​strengthening​ ​the​ ​Monroe​ ​Doctrine. ○ British​ ​Guiana​ ​and​ ​Venezuela​ ​had​ ​been​ ​disputing​ ​their​ ​border​ ​for ○ many​ ​years,​ ​but​ ​when​ ​gold​ ​was​ ​discovered,​ ​the​ ​situation​ ​worsened. ○ Thus,​ ​the​ ​U.S.,​ ​under​ President​ ​Grover​ ​Cleveland,​ ​sent​ ​a​ ​note ○ written​ ​by​ ​Secretary​ ​of​ ​State​ ​Richard​ ​Olney​ ​to​ ​Britain​ ​informing​ ​them ○ that​ ​the​ ​British​ ​actions​ ​were​ ​trespassing​ ​the​ ​Monroe​ ​Doctrine​ ​and​ ​that ○ the​ ​U.S.​ ​controlled​ ​things​ ​in​ ​the​ ​Americas. ○ The​ ​British​ ​replied​ ​by​ ​stating​ ​that​ ​the​ ​affair​ ​was​ ​none​ ​of​ ​the​ ​U.S's​ ​business. ○ Cleveland​ ​angrily​ ​replied​ ​by​ ​appropriating​ ​a​ ​committee​ ​to​ ​devise​ ​a ○ new​ ​boundary​ ​and​ ​if​ ​Great​ ​Britain​ ​would​ ​not​ ​accept​ ​it,​ ​then​ ​the​ ​U.S. ○ implied​ ​it​ ​would​ ​fight​ ​for​ ​it. ○ Britain​ ​didn’t​ ​want​ ​to​ ​fight​ ​because​ ​of​ ​the​ ​damage​ ​to​ ​its ○ merchant​ ​trade​ ​that​ ​could​ ​result,​ ​the​ ​Dutch​ ​Boers​ ​of​ ​South​ ​Africa​ ​were ○ about​ ​to​ ​go​ ​to​ ​war​ ​and​ ​Germany’s​ ​Kaiser​ ​Wilhem​ ​was​ ​beginning​ ​to ○ challenge​ ​Britain's​ ​power. ○ Seeing​ ​the​ ​benefits​ ​of​ ​an​ ​alliance​ ​with​ ​the​ ​"Yankees,"​ ​Great ○ ○ ○ Britain​ ​began​ ​a​ ​period​ ​of​ ​"patting​ ​the​ ​eagle's​ ​head,"​ ​instead​ ​of America​ ​"twisting​ ​the​ ​lion's​ ​tale."​ ​This​ ​was​ ​referred​ ​to​ ​as​ ​the​ ​Great Rapprochement​ ​or​ ​reconciliation. II.​ ​Spurning​ ​the​ ​Hawaiian​ ​Pear 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. From​ ​the​ ​1820s,​ ​when​ ​the​ ​first​ ​U.S.​ ​missionaries​ ​came,​ ​the​ ​United​ ​States​ ​had​ ​always​ ​liked​ ​the​ ​Hawaiian Islands. Treaties​ ​signed​ ​in​ ​1875​ ​and​ ​1887​ ​guaranteed​ ​commercial​ ​trade​ ​and U.S.​ ​rights​ ​to​ ​priceless​ ​Pearl​ ​Harbor,​ ​while​ ​Hawaiian​ ​sugar​ ​was​ ​very profitable.​ ​But​ ​in​ ​1890,​ ​the​ ​McKinley​ ​Tariff​ ​raised​ ​the​ ​prices​ ​on​ ​this sugar,​ ​raising​ ​its​ ​price. Americans​ ​felt​ ​that​ ​the​ ​best​ ​way​ ​to​ ​offset​ ​this​ ​was​ ​to​ ​annex Hawaii—a​ ​move​ ​opposed​ ​by​ ​its​ ​Queen​ ​Liliuokalani—but​ ​in 1893,​ ​desperate​ ​Americans​ ​in​ ​Hawaii​ ​revolted. ○ They​ ​succeeded,​ ​and​ ​Hawaii​ ​seemed​ ​ready​ ​for​ ​annexation,​ ​but​ ​Grover ○ Cleveland​ ​became​ ​president​ ​again,​ ​investigated​ ​the​ ​coup,​ ​found​ ​it​ ​to​ ​be ○ wrong,​ ​and​ ​delayed​ ​the​ ​annexation​ ​of​ ​Hawaii​ ​until​ ​he​ ​basically​ ​left ○ office. ○ Cleveland​ ​was​ ​bombarded​ ​for​ ​stopping​ ​“Manifest​ ​Destiny,”​ ​but​ ​his​ ​actions​ ​proved​ ​to​ ​be​ ​honorable for​ ​him​ ​and​ ​America. III.​ ​Cubans​ ​Rise​ ​in​ ​Revolt 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. In​ ​1895,​ ​Cuba​ ​revolted​ ​against​ ​Spain,​ ​citing​ ​years​ ​of​ ​misrule,​ ​and the​ ​Cubans​ ​torched​ ​their​ ​sugar​ ​cane​ ​fields​ ​in​ ​hopes​ ​that​ ​such destruction​ ​would​ ​either​ ​make​ ​Spain​ ​leave​ ​or​ ​America​ ​interfere​ ​(the American​ ​tariff​ ​of​ ​1894​ ​had​ ​raised​ ​prices​ ​on​ ​it​ ​anyway). Sure​ ​enough,​ ​America​ ​supported​ ​Cuba,​ ​and​ ​the ​situation​ ​worsened when​ ​Spanish​ ​General​ ​Valeriano​ ​“Butcher”​ ​Weyler​ ​came​ ​to Cuba​ ​to​ ​crush​ ​the​ ​revolt​ ​and​ ​ended​ ​up​ ​putting​ ​many​ ​civilians​ ​into concentration​ ​camps​ ​that​ ​were​ ​terrible​ ​and​ ​killed​ ​many. The​ ​American​ ​public​ ​clamored​ ​for​ ​action,​ ​especially​ ​when​ ​spurred​ ​on​ ​by​ ​the​ ​yellow​ ​press,​ ​but​ ​Cleveland would​ ​do​ ​nothing. ○ The​ ​Mystery​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Maine​ ​Explosion ○ The​ ​yellow​ ​presses​ ​competed​ ​against​ ​each​ ​other​ ​to​ ​come​ ​up​ ​with​ ​more ○ sensational​ ​stories,​ ​and​ ​Hearst​ ​even​ ​sent​ ​artist​ ​Frederick​ ​Remington​ ​to ○ draw​ ​pictures​ ​of​ ​often-fictional​ ​atrocities. ■ For​ ​example,​ ​he​ ​drew​ ​Spanish​ ​officials​ ​brutally​ ​stripping​ ​and ■ searching​ ​an​ ​American​ ​woman,​ ​when​ ​in​ ​reality,​ ​Spanish​ ​women,​ ​not​ ​men, ■ did​ ​such​ ​acts. ■ Then,​ ​suddenly,​ ​on​ ​February​ ​9,​ ​1898,​ ​a​ ​letter​ ​written​ ​by​ ​Spanish ■ minister​ ​to​ ​Washington​ ​Dupuy​ ​de​ ​Lôme​ ​that​ ​ridiculed​ ​President ■ McKinley​ ​was​ ​published​ ​by​ ​Hearst. ○ On​ ​February​ ​15th​ ​of​ ​that​ ​year,​ ​the​ ​U.S.​ ​battleship​ ​U.S.S.​ ​Maine ○ mysteriously​ ​exploded​ ​in​ ​Havana​ ​Harbor,​ ​killing​ ​260​ ​officers​ ​and​ ​men. ■ Despite​ ​an​ ​unknown​ ​cause,​ ​America​ ​was​ ​war-mad​ ​and​ ​therefore​ ​Spain​ ​received​ ​the blame. ■ Hearst​ ​called​ ​down​ ​to​ ​Cuba,​ ​“You​ ​supply​ ​the​ ​pictures,​ ​I’ll​ ​supply​ ​the​ ​story.” ■ Actually,​ ​what​ ​really​ ​happened​ ​was​ ​that​ ​an​ ​accidental​ ​explosion​ ​had 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. ■ basically​ ​blown​ ​up​ ​the​ ​ship—a​ ​similar​ ​conclusion​ ​to​ ​what​ ​Spanish ■ investigators​ ​suggested—but​ ​America​ ​ignored​ ​them. ■ The​ ​American​ ​public​ ​wanted​ ​war,​ ​but​ ​McKinley​ ​privately​ ​didn’t ■ like​ ​war​ ​or​ ​the​ ​violence,​ ​since​ ​he​ ​had​ ​been​ ​a​ ​Civil​ ​War​ ​major.​ ​In ■ addition,​ ​Mark​ ​Hanna​ ​and​ ​Wall​ ​Street​ ​didn’t​ ​want​ ​war​ ​because​ ​it ■ would​ ​upset​ ​business. However,​ ​on​ ​April​ ​11,​ ​1898,​ ​the​ ​president​ ​sent​ ​his​ ​war​ ​message​ ​to Congress​ ​anyway,​ ​since:​ ​(1)​ ​war​ ​with​ ​Spain​ ​seemed​ ​inevitable,​ ​(2) America​ ​had​ ​to​ ​defend​ ​democracy,​ ​and​ ​(3)​ ​opposing​ ​a​ ​war​ ​could​ ​split​ ​the Republican​ ​party​ ​and​ ​America. Congress​ ​also​ ​adopted​ ​the​ ​Teller​ ​Amendment,​ ​which​ ​proclaimed​ ​that when​ ​the​ ​U.S.​ ​had​ ​overthrown​ ​Spanish​ ​misrule,​ ​it​ ​would​ ​give​ ​the​ ​Cubans their​ ​freedom​ ​and​ ​not​ ​conquer​ ​it. IV.​ ​Dewey’s​ ​May​ ​Day​ ​Victory​ ​at​ ​Manila 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. On​ ​paper,​ ​at​ ​least,​ ​the​ ​Spanish​ ​had​ ​the​ ​advantage​ ​over​ ​the​ ​U.S., since​ ​it​ ​had​ ​more​ ​troops​ ​and​ ​a​ ​supposedly​ ​better​ ​army,​ ​as​ ​well​ ​as younger​ ​(and​ ​seemingly​ ​more​ ​daring)​ ​generals. Navy​ ​Secretary​ ​John​ ​D.​ ​Long​ ​and​ ​his​ ​assistant​ ​secretary,​ ​Theodore Roosevelt​ ​had​ ​modernized​ ​the​ ​U.S.​ ​navy,​ ​making​ ​it​ ​sleek​ ​and​ ​sharp. ○ On​ ​February​ ​25,​ ​1898,​ ​Roosevelt​ ​cabled​ ​Commodore​ ​George​ ​Dewey, ○ commanding​ ​the​ ​American​ ​Asiatic​ ​Squadron​ ​at​ ​Hong​ ​Kong,​ ​and​ ​told​ ​him​ ​to ○ take​ ​over​ ​the​ ​Philippines. ○ Dewey​ ​did​ ​so​ ​brilliantly,​ ​completely​ ​taking​ ​over​ ​the​ ​islands​ ​from​ ​the​ ​Spanish. Dewey​ ​had​ ​naval​ ​control,​ ​but​ ​he​ ​could​ ​not​ ​storm​ ​the​ ​islands​ ​and​ ​its fortresses,​ ​so​ ​he​ ​had​ ​to​ ​wait​ ​for​ ​reinforcements,​ ​but​ ​meanwhile,​ ​other nations​ ​were​ ​moving​ ​their​ ​ships​ ​into​ ​Manila​ ​Harbor​ ​to​ ​protect​ ​their men. ○ The​ ​German​ ​navy​ ​defied​ ​American​ ​blockade​ ​regulations,​ ​and​ ​Dewey ○ threatened​ ​the​ ​navy​ ​commander​ ​with​ ​war,​ ​but​ ​luckily,​ ​this​ ​episode​ ​blew ○ over,​ ​due​ ​in​ ​part​ ​to​ ​the​ ​British​ ​assistance​ ​of​ ​America. Finally,​ ​on​ ​August​ ​13,​ ​1898,​ ​American​ ​troops​ ​arrived​ ​and​ ​captured Manila,​ ​collaborating​ ​with​ ​Filipino​ ​insurgents,​ ​led​ ​by​ ​Emilio Aguinaldo,​ ​to​ ​overthrow​ ​the​ ​Spanish​ ​rulers. On​ ​July​ ​7,​ ​1898,​ ​the​ ​U.S.​ ​annexed​ ​Hawaii​ ​(so​ ​that​ ​it​ ​could​ ​use​ ​the islands​ ​to​ ​support​ ​Dewey,​ ​supposedly),​ ​and​ ​Hawaii​ ​received​ ​full territorial​ ​status​ ​in​ ​1900. V.​ ​The​ ​Confused​ ​Invasion​ ​of​ ​Cuba ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● The​ ​Spanish​ ​sent​ ​warships​ ​to​ ​Cuba,​ ​panicking​ ​Americans​ ​on​ ​the Eastern​ ​seaboard,​ ​and​ ​the​ ​fleet,​ ​commanded​ ​by​ ​Admiral​ ​Cervera,​ ​found refuge​ ​in​ ​Santiago​ ​harbor,​ ​Cuba. 1. Then,​ ​it​ ​was​ ​promptly​ ​blockaded​ ​by​ ​a​ ​better​ ​American​ ​force. American​ ​ground​ ​troops,​ ​led​ ​by​ ​fat​ ​General​ ​William​ ​R.​ ​Shafter,​ ​were ill-prepared​ ​for​ ​combat​ ​in​ ​the​ ​tropical​ ​environment​ ​(i.e.​ ​they​ ​had woolen​ ​long​ ​underwear). The​ ​“Rough​ ​Riders,”​ ​a​ ​regiment​ ​of​ ​volunteers​ ​led​ ​by Theodore​ ​Roosevelt​ ​and​ ​Colonel​ ​Leonard​ ​Wood,​ ​rushed​ ​to​ ​Cuba​ ​and​ ​battled at​ ​El​ ​Caney​ ​stormed​ ​up​ ​San​ ​Juan​ ​Hill. Admiral​ ​Cervera​ ​was​ ​finally​ ​ordered​ ​to​ ​fight​ ​the​ ​American​ ​fleet,​ ​and​ ​his​ ​fleet​ ​was​ ​destroyed. ● ● ● ● ● On​ ​land,​ ​the​ ​American​ ​army,​ ​commanded​ ​by​ ​General​ ​Nelson​ ​A.​ ​Miles,​ ​met​ ​little​ ​resistance​ ​as​ ​they​ ​took over​ ​Puerto​ ​Rico. Soon​ ​afterwards,​ ​on​ ​August​ ​12,​ ​1898,​ ​Spain​ ​signed​ ​an​ ​armistice. Notably,​ ​if​ ​the​ ​Spaniards​ ​had​ ​held​ ​out​ ​for​ ​a​ ​few​ ​more​ ​months,​ ​they might​ ​have​ ​won,​ ​for​ ​the​ ​American​ ​army​ ​was​ ​plagued​ ​with​ ​dysentery, typhoid, ​and​ ​yellow​ ​fever. 1. Finally,​ ​TR​ ​wrote​ ​a​ ​“round-robin”​ ​letter​ ​demanded​ ​that​ ​the​ ​U.S.​ ​government​ ​take​ ​the​ ​troops​ ​out before​ ​they​ ​all​ ​died. VI.​ ​America’s​ ​Course​ ​(Curse?)​ ​of​ ​Empire ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● In​ ​negotiations​ ​in​ ​Paris,​ ​America​ ​got​ ​Guam​ ​and​ ​Puerto​ ​Rico​ ​and freed​ ​Cuba,​ ​but​ ​the​ ​Philippines​ ​were​ ​a​ ​tough​ ​problem,​ ​since​ ​America couldn’t​ ​honorably​ ​give​ ​it​ ​back​ ​to​ ​Spain​ ​after​ ​decades​ ​of misrule,​ ​but​ ​the​ ​U.S.​ ​couldn’t​ ​just​ ​take​ ​it​ ​like​ ​an​ ​imperialistic nation. Finally,​ ​McKinley​ ​decided​ ​to​ ​keep​ ​the​ ​Philippines,​ ​even​ ​though​ ​they had​ ​been​ ​taken​ ​one​ ​day​ ​after​ ​the​ ​end​ ​of​ ​the​ ​war,​ ​but​ ​he​ ​did​ ​so​ ​because of​ ​popular​ ​public​ ​opinion​ ​and​ ​because​ ​it​ ​meshed​ ​well​ ​with​ ​business interests. 1. The​ ​U.S.​ ​paid​ ​$20​ ​million​ ​for​ ​the​ ​islands. Upon​ ​the​ ​U.S.​ ​taking​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Philippines,​ ​uproar​ ​broke​ ​out,​ ​since until​ ​now,​ ​the​ ​United​ ​States​ ​had​ ​mostly​ ​acquired​ ​territory​ ​from​ ​the American​ ​continent,​ ​and​ ​even​ ​with​ ​Alaska,​ ​Hawaii,​ ​and​ ​the​ ​other scattered​ ​islands,​ ​there​ ​weren’t​ ​many​ ​people​ ​living​ ​there. The​ ​Anti-Imperialist​ ​League​ ​sprang​ ​into​ ​being,​ ​firmly​ ​opposed​ ​to this​ ​new​ ​imperialism​ ​of​ ​America,​ ​and​ ​its​ ​members​ ​included​ ​Mark​ ​Twain, William​ ​James,​ ​Samuel​ ​Gompers,​ ​and​ ​Andrew​ ​Carnegie. 1. Even​ ​the​ ​Filipinos​ ​wanted​ ​freedom,​ ​and​ ​denying​ ​that​ ​to​ ​them​ ​was​ ​un-American. However,​ ​expansionists​ ​cried​ ​that​ ​the​ ​Philippines​ ​could​ ​become​ ​another​ ​Hong​ ​Kong. 1. British​ ​writer​ ​Rudyard​ ​Kipling​ ​wrote​ ​about​ ​“The​ ​White 2. Man’s​ ​Burden,”​ ​urging​ ​America​ ​to​ ​keep​ ​the​ ​Philippines​ ​and 3. “civilize​ ​them.” In​ ​the​ ​Senate,​ ​the​ ​treaty​ ​was​ ​almost​ ​not​ ​passed,​ ​but​ ​finally, William​ ​Jennings​ ​Bryan​ ​argued​ ​for​ ​its​ ​passage,​ ​saying​ ​that​ ​the​ ​sooner the​ ​treaty​ ​was​ ​passed,​ ​the​ ​sooner​ ​the​ ​U.S.​ ​could​ ​get​ ​rid​ ​of​ ​the Philippines.​ ​The​ ​treaty​ ​passed​ ​by​ ​only​ ​one​ ​vote. VII.​ ​Perplexities​ ​in​ ​Puerto​ ​Rico​ ​and​ ​Cuba ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● The​ ​Foraker​ ​Act​ ​of​ ​1900​ ​gave​ ​Puerto​ ​Ricans​ ​a​ ​limited​ ​degree​ ​of popular​ ​government,​ ​and​ ​in​ ​1917,​ ​Congress​ ​granted​ ​Puerto​ ​Ricans​ ​full American​ ​citizenship. 1. U.S.​ ​help​ ​also​ ​transformed​ ​Puerto​ ​Rico​ ​and​ ​worked​ ​wonders​ ​in​ ​sanitation,​ ​transportation,​ ​beauty, and​ ​education. In​ ​the​ ​Insular​ ​Cases,​ ​the​ ​Supreme​ ​Court​ ​barely​ ​ruled​ ​that​ ​the Constitution​ ​did​ ​not​ ​have​ ​full​ ​authority​ ​on​ ​how​ ​to​ ​deal​ ​with​ ​the islands​ ​(Cuba​ ​and​ ​Puerto​ ​Rico),​ ​essentially​ ​letting​ ​Congress​ ​do whatever​ ​it​ ​wanted​ ​with​ ​them.​ ​Basically,​ ​the​ ​cases​ ​said​ ​the​ ​island residents​ ​do​ ​not​ ​necessarily​ ​share​ ​the​ ​same​ ​rights​ ​as​ ​Americans. America​ ​could​ ​not​ ​improve​ ​Cuba​ ​that​ ​much​ ​however,​ ​other​ ​than ● ● getting​ ​rid​ ​of​ ​yellow​ ​fever​ ​with​ ​the​ ​help​ ​of​ ​General​ ​Leonard​ ​Wood​ ​and Dr.​ ​Walter​ ​Reed. 1. In​ ​1902,​ ​the​ ​U.S.​ ​did​ ​indeed​ ​walk​ ​away​ ​from​ ​Cuba,​ ​but​ ​it​ ​also 2. encouraged​ ​Cuba​ ​to​ ​write​ ​and​ ​pass​ ​the​ ​Platt​ ​Amendment,​ ​which​ ​became 3. their​ ​constitution. 4. This​ ​amendment​ ​said​ ​that​ ​(1)​ ​the​ ​U.S.​ ​could​ ​intervene​ ​and​ ​restore 5. order​ ​in​ ​case​ ​of​ ​anarchy,​ ​(2)​ ​that​ ​the​ ​U.S.​ ​could​ ​trade​ ​freely​ ​with 6. Cuba,​ ​and​ ​(3)​ ​that​ ​the​ ​U.S.​ ​could​ ​get​ ​two​ ​bays​ ​for​ ​naval​ ​bases,​ ​notably 7. Guantanamo​ ​Bay. VIII.​ ​New​ ​Horizons​ ​in​ ​Two​ ​Hemispheres ● ● ● ● ● The​ ​Spanish-American​ ​War​ ​lasted​ ​only​ ​113​ ​days​ ​and​ ​affirmed​ ​America’s​ ​presence​ ​as​ ​a​ ​world​ ​power. However,​ ​America’s​ ​actions​ ​after​ ​the​ ​war​ ​made​ ​its​ ​German​ ​rival​ ​jealous​ ​and​ ​its​ ​Latin​ ​American​ ​neighbors suspicious. Finally,​ ​one​ ​of​ ​the​ ​happiest​ ​results​ ​of​ ​the​ ​war​ ​was​ ​the​ ​narrowing of​ ​the​ ​bloody​ ​chasm​ ​between​ ​the​ ​U.S.​ ​North​ ​and​ ​South,​ ​which​ ​had​ ​been formed​ ​in​ ​the​ ​Civil​ ​War. 1. General​ ​Joseph​ ​Wheeler​ ​was​ ​given​ ​a​ ​command​ ​in​ ​Cuba. IX.​ ​“Little​ ​Brown​ ​Brothers”​ ​in​ ​the​ ​Philippines ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● The​ ​Filipinos​ ​had​ ​assumed​ ​that​ ​they​ ​would​ ​receive​ ​freedom​ ​after​ ​the Spanish-American​ ​War,​ ​but​ ​when​ ​they​ ​didn’t​ ​they​ ​revolted​ ​against the​ ​U.S. 1. The​ ​insurrection​ ​began​ ​on​ ​February​ ​4,​ ​1899,​ ​and​ ​was​ ​led​ ​by​ ​Emilio 2. Aguinaldo,​ ​who​ ​took​ ​his​ ​troops​ ​into​ ​guerrilla​ ​warfare​ ​after​ ​open​ ​combat 3. proved​ ​to​ ​be​ ​useless. 4. Stories​ ​of​ ​atrocities​ ​abounded,​ ​but​ ​finally,​ ​the​ ​rebellion​ ​was 5. broken​ ​in​ ​1901​ ​when​ ​U.S.​ ​soldiers​ ​invaded​ ​Aguinaldo’s 6. headquarters​ ​and​ ​captured​ ​him. President​ ​McKinley​ ​formed​ ​a​ ​Philippine​ ​Commission​ ​in​ ​1899​ ​to​ ​deal with​ ​the​ ​Filipinos,​ ​and​ ​in​ ​its​ ​second​ ​year,​ ​the​ ​organization​ ​was​ ​headed by​ ​amiable​ ​William​ ​Howard​ ​Taft,​ ​who​ ​developed​ ​a​ ​strong​ ​attachment​ ​for the​ ​Filipinos,​ ​calling​ ​them​ ​his​ ​“little​ ​brown​ ​brothers.” The​ ​Americans​ ​tried​ ​to​ ​assimilate​ ​the​ ​Filipinos,​ ​but​ ​the​ ​islanders resisted;​ ​they​ ​finally​ ​got​ ​their​ ​independence​ ​on​ ​July​ ​4,​ ​1946. X.​ ​Hinging​ ​the​ ​Open​ ​Door​ ​in​ ​China ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Following​ ​its​ ​defeat​ ​by​ ​Japan​ ​in​ ​1894-1895,​ ​China​ ​had​ ​been​ ​carved into​ ​“spheres​ ​of​ ​influence”​ ​by​ ​the​ ​European​ ​powers. Americans​ ​were​ ​alarmed,​ ​as​ ​churches​ ​worried​ ​about​ ​their​ ​missionary strongholds​ ​while​ ​businesses​ ​feared​ ​that​ ​they​ ​would​ ​not​ ​be​ ​able​ ​to export​ ​their​ ​products​ ​to​ ​China. Finally,​ ​Secretary​ ​of​ ​State​ ​John​ ​Hay​ ​dispatched​ ​his​ ​famous​ ​Open Door​ ​note,​ ​which​ ​urged​ ​the​ ​European​ ​nations​ ​to​ ​keep​ ​fair​ ​competition open​ ​to​ ​all​ ​nations​ ​willing​ ​and​ ​wanting​ ​to​ ​participate.​ ​This​ ​became​ ​the “Open​ ​Door​ ​Policy.” 1. All​ ​the​ ​powers​ ​already​ ​holding​ ​spots​ ​of​ ​China​ ​were​ ​squeamish,​ ​and ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● 2. only​ ​Italy,​ ​which​ ​had​ ​no​ ​sphere​ ​of​ ​influence​ ​of​ ​its​ ​own,​ ​accepted 3. unconditionally. 4. Russia​ ​didn’t​ ​accept​ ​it​ ​at​ ​all,​ ​but​ ​the​ ​others​ ​did,​ ​on 5. certain​ ​conditions,​ ​and​ ​thus,​ ​China​ ​was​ ​“saved”​ ​from​ ​being 6. carved​ ​up. In​ ​1900,​ ​a​ ​super-patriotic​ ​group​ ​known​ ​as​ ​the​ ​“Boxers” started​ ​the​ ​Boxers’​ ​Rebellion​ ​where​ ​they​ ​revolted​ ​and​ ​took​ ​over the​ ​capital​ ​of​ ​China,​ ​Beijing,​ ​taking​ ​all​ ​foreigners​ ​hostage,​ ​including diplomats. After​ ​a​ ​multi-national​ ​force​ ​broke​ ​the​ ​rebellion,​ ​the​ ​powers​ ​made China​ ​pay​ ​$333​ ​million​ ​for​ ​damages,​ ​of​ ​which​ ​the​ ​U.S.​ ​eventually received​ ​$18​ ​million. Fearing​ ​that​ ​the​ ​European​ ​powers​ ​would​ ​carve​ ​China​ ​up​ ​for​ ​good,​ ​now,​ ​John​ ​Hay​ ​officially​ ​asked​ ​that China​ ​not​ ​be​ ​carved. XI.​ ​Imperialism​ ​or​ ​Bryanism​ ​in​ ​1900? ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Just​ ​like​ ​four​ ​years​ ​before,​ ​it​ ​was​ ​McKinley​ ​sitting​ ​on​ ​his​ ​front porch​ ​and​ ​Bryan​ ​actively​ ​and​ ​personally​ ​campaigning,​ ​but​ ​Theodore Roosevelt’s​ ​active​ ​campaigning​ ​took​ ​a​ ​lot​ ​of​ ​the​ ​momentum​ ​away from​ ​Bryan’s. Bryan’s​ ​supporters​ ​concentrated​ ​on​ ​imperialism—a​ ​bad move,​ ​considering​ ​that​ ​Americans​ ​were​ ​tired​ ​of​ ​the​ ​subject,​ ​while McKinley’s​ ​supporters​ ​claimed​ ​that​ ​“Bryanism,”​ ​not imperialism,​ ​was​ ​the​ ​problem,​ ​and​ ​that​ ​if​ ​Bryan​ ​became​ ​president,​ ​he would​ ​shake​ ​up​ ​the​ ​prosperity​ ​that​ ​was​ ​in​ ​America​ ​at​ ​the​ ​time;​ ​McKinley won​ ​easily. XII.​ ​TR:​ ​Brandisher​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Big​ ​Stick ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Six​ ​months​ ​later,​ ​a​ ​deranged​ ​murderer​ ​shot​ ​and​ ​killed​ ​William McKinley,​ ​making​ ​Theodore​ ​Roosevelt​ ​the​ ​youngest​ ​president​ ​ever​ ​at​ ​age 42. 1. TR​ ​promised​ ​to​ ​carry​ ​out​ ​McKinley’s​ ​policies. Theodore​ ​Roosevelt​ ​was​ ​a​ ​barrel-chested​ ​man​ ​with​ ​a​ ​short​ ​temper, large​ ​glasses,​ ​and​ ​a​ ​stubborn​ ​mentality​ ​that​ ​always​ ​thought​ ​he​ ​was right. 1. Born​ ​into​ ​a​ ​rich​ ​family​ ​and​ ​graduated​ ​from​ ​Harvard,​ ​he​ ​was​ ​highly 2. energetic​ ​and​ ​spirited,​ ​and​ ​his​ ​motto​ ​was​ ​“Speak​ ​softly​ ​and​ ​carry 3. a​ ​big​ ​stick,”​ ​or​ ​basically,​ ​“Let​ ​your​ ​actions​ ​do​ ​the 4. talki...
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