Chapter 1 bio 111.rtf - Chapter 1 Learning Outcomes After...

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Chapter 1 Learning Outcomes After studying this chapter, you should be able to accomplish the following outcomes. How to Define Life List the four characteristics shared by all living organisms. Define emergent property in reference to the levels of organization of living organisms. Explain why maintaining homeostasis is critical for living organisms. Describe how the process of reproduction leads to the evolution of species. Evolution, the Unifying Concept of Biology List the 8 basic taxa of classification of living organisms, from most inclusive to least inclusive. List the 4 domains and give an example of the types of organisms found in each. Explain how natural selection leads to changes in the composition of a species over long periods of time. How the Biosphere is Organized Define ecosystem and briefly explain how living organisms within the ecosystem may interact. Explain why biodiversity is important, and the various factors that threaten biodiversity in many ecosystems worldwide. The Process of Science List the stages of the scientific method. Explain the process of forming a scientific hypothesis. Contrast inductive reasoning with deductive reasoning. Describe the process of formation of scientific theories, and list some of the basic theories in modern biology. Explain the benefits and limitations of using statistical studies in science. Compare and contrast a field study with an investigative study. How to Define Life Living organisms on Earth share many common characteristics: Living Things Are Organized Living Things Acquire Materials and Energy Living Things Respond Living Things Reproduce and Develop Living Things Have Adaptations Living Things Are Organized Organization of living systems begins with atoms , which make up basic building blocks called elements. The cell is the basic structural and functional unit of all living things. Different cells combine to make up tissues (e.g., myocardial tissue). Tissues combine to make up an organ (e.g., the heart).
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Specific organs work together as a system (e.g., the heart, arteries, veins, etc.). Multicellular organisms (each an “individual” within a particular species) contain organ systems (e.g., cardiovascular, digestive, respiratory, etc.). A species in a particular area (e.g., gray squirrels in a forest) constitutes a population. Interacting populations in a particular area comprise a community. A community plus its physical environment is an ecosystem. The biosphere is comprised of regions of the Earth’s crust, waters, and atmosphere inhabited by organisms. Each level of organization is more complex than the level preceding it.
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