Chapter 4: Social structure theories – those theories that suggest that social and economic forces operating in deteriorated lower-class areas, including disorganization, stress, and cultural deviance, push residents into criminal behavior patterns 1) Social disorganization theory - neighborhood or area marked by culture conflict, lack of cohesiveness, a transient population, and insufficient social organizations. These problems are reflected in the problems at schools in these areas (Shaw & McKay disorganized/deteriorated neighborhoods Shaw and McKay’s study – found that delinquency was highest in decaying environments. teenage gangs transitional zone – area undergoing a shift in population and structure, usually from middle- class residential to lower-class mixed use breakdown of community control collective efficacy – a process in which mutual trust and a willingness to intervene in the supervision of children and help maintain public order create a sense of well-being in a neighborhood and help control antisocial activities 2) Anomie theory – normlessness produced by rapidly shifting moral values; according to Merton, anomie occurs when personal goals cannot be achieved using available means Merton’s anomie and criminal adaptation (such as innovators) relative deprivation – condition that exists when people of wealth and poverty live in close proximity to one another. The relatively deprived are apt to have feelings of anger and hostility, which may produce criminal behavior 3 ) Cultural deviance theory – links delinquent acts to the formation of independent subcultures with a unique set of values that clash with the mainstream culture sub-cultural values value transmission Miller’s lower-class values Cloward & Ohlin’s criminal, conflict, and retreastist gang subcultures Social process theories: 1) Social learning theory – the view that behavior is modeled through observation, either directly through intimate contact with others or indirectly through media. Interactions that are rewarded are copied, whereas those that are punished are avoided Identification – emotional connection Imitation/model Reinforcements – positive = rewards/incentives| negative = punishments/disapproval Sutherland’s differential association – asserts that criminal behavior is learned primarily in
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- Summer '16
- Ruth Liu
- Sociology, Social Disorganization Theory, delinquent gangs