Chapter 13_ Worlds Entangled, 1600–1750 _ Worlds Together, Worlds Apart, 3e_ W. W. Norton StudySpace

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W.W. Norton & CompanyWorlds Together, Worlds Apart, 3e: A W. W. Norton StudySpaceChapter 13Worlds Entangled, 1600–1750Chapter SummaryFrom 1600 to 1750, trade continued to expand, tying all areas of the globe together. Demands for silver, sugar,spices, silks, cotton, and porcelain drove trade so that products from each major global region could be foundvirtually everywhere else. Silver allowed economies to become commercialized and began to strengthen the handof European trade. Europeans began moving, and forcibly moving Africans, into new places while Europeansexpanded their colonial reach. Competition led to bitter conflicts, challenging the preeminence of Afro-Eurasia’sgreat centralized empires.Economic and Political Effects of Global CommerceRising economic integration had far-reaching impact on rulers and common people alike. Shortages or surpluses ofkey goods greatly affected prices across the globe, which could affect fortunes. Tremendous fortunes, in turn,provided funding for larger armies and ambitious ventures, but they could also divide merchant interests from thoseof their monarchs. Some states—England, France, Holland, Japan—became stronger because of trade. Others—theMughals, the Ming, the Ottomans, the Safavids—became increasingly destabilized by it.EXTRACTING WEALTH: MERCANTILISMGold and silver production in Spanish and Portuguese colonies stimulated other European powers to seek coloniesof their own. Few found gold, but many found wealth in the New World’s fertile lands by building plantations orharvesting furs. Sugar production soared, transforming European diets and economies. Viewing the world throughmercantilist eyes, Europeans saw colonies strictly as sources of revenue and competed with one another for control.Charter companies represented the close ties between merchants and governments, as economics and politicsbecame closely intertwined.New Colonies in the AmericasEngland, France, and Holland all began to establish colonies in the Americas, competing with each other and withSpain and Portugal.HOLLAND’S TRADING COLONIESThe Dutch began as transporters of cargo for other nations, but eventually sought their own route to Asia via a“northwest passage” around the north end of the Americas. Exploration by Henry Hudson found no passage, butsome settlers established themselves on the river and began engaging in trade with the Iroquois. Others profited bypirating Spanish shipping. Still others formed the Dutch West India Company and established a presence in theCaribbean. Although they failed as colonists in the Americas, the Dutch did succeed as businessmen andtransporters, carrying goods and slaves and underwriting ventures. Their greatest successes, however, were to befound in Asia.

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