10/9/17Libertarian freedom:-Right to property. -Doing what you want with what you have, as long as it doesn’t infringe on other’s rights. -Value of freedom: utility and theology Commercials on Freedom:-Anti-conformity-Being different-Think for yourself-Freedom and patriotism-Innovation – new technology-Creativity-Power of individual ideas-Being yourself-Express yourself-Independent/self-sufficiencyKant (1724-1804)View on freedom:-Truly deciding and thinking for yourself-Reason is the source of freedom because reason enables us to choose against our inclinations. -MaximoMotive oUnderlying principal of the act oGeneral principal of volitionoAction and reason for actingoA maxim is a principle or rule that the will of an individual uses in making a decision. oIt is the form of reasoning that action represents. -Freedom = autonomy self-legislation-My “true” self is my pure reason-Inclinations and desires I did not choose are “external” to meFree Will = practical reasondeciding on the basis of reason alone. Pure reason (autonomy) oIs to do an action because it is right (motive of duty) oIs to follow a categorical imperativeoIs to be autonomous Deciding by using reason in service of desires/inclinations. Instrumental reason (heteronomy) oIs to do an action as a means to serve other inclinationoIs to follow a hypothetical imperativeoIs to be heteronomous (other-ruled) What is Kant’s aim in this text?-What he is doing is explaining the morality of morality-His aim is to identify the supreme principal of morality
What approach will he take to accomplish his aim? (and what approaches will he NOT take)?-Laws of nature that describe the way things are-Laws of freedom/ethics are laws that describe the way things ought to be-Not be nature-Not be culture (cultural relativism)-Not be happiness (utilitarianism)-Not in empirical evidence-Not anything external to us 10/11/17Freedom:Nature:-Being moral is our rational end-Pure reason-Motive of duty-Autonomy-Categorical (unconditional) imperative -Happiness is our natural end -Inclinations -Inclination-Heteronomy -Hypothetical (conditional) imperative KantPure Reason: -The moral law, Kant thinks, is established and known through reason alone; it consists in a priori principals of pure reason.