Philosophical Ethics Unit 2.docx - Libertarian freedom...

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10/9/17 Libertarian freedom: - Right to property. - Doing what you want with what you have, as long as it doesn’t infringe on other’s rights. - Value of freedom: utility and theology Commercials on Freedom: - Anti-conformity - Being different - Think for yourself - Freedom and patriotism - Innovation – new technology - Creativity - Power of individual ideas - Being yourself - Express yourself - Independent/self-sufficiency Kant (1724-1804) View on freedom: - Truly deciding and thinking for yourself - Reason is the source of freedom because reason enables us to choose against our inclinations. - Maxim o Motive o Underlying principal of the act o General principal of volition o Action and reason for acting o A maxim is a principle or rule that the will of an individual uses in making a decision. o It is the form of reasoning that action represents. - Freedom = autonomy self-legislation - My “true” self is my pure reason - Inclinations and desires I did not choose are “external” to me Free Will = practical reason deciding on the basis of reason alone. Pure reason (autonomy) o Is to do an action because it is right (motive of duty) o Is to follow a categorical imperative o Is to be autonomous Deciding by using reason in service of desires/inclinations. Instrumental reason (heteronomy) o Is to do an action as a means to serve other inclination o Is to follow a hypothetical imperative o Is to be heteronomous (other-ruled) What is Kant’s aim in this text? - What he is doing is explaining the morality of morality - His aim is to identify the supreme principal of morality
What approach will he take to accomplish his aim? (and what approaches will he NOT take)? - Laws of nature that describe the way things are - Laws of freedom/ethics are laws that describe the way things ought to be - Not be nature - Not be culture (cultural relativism) - Not be happiness (utilitarianism) - Not in empirical evidence - Not anything external to us 10/11/17 Freedom: Nature: - Being moral is our rational end - Pure reason - Motive of duty - Autonomy - Categorical (unconditional) imperative - Happiness is our natural end - Inclinations - Inclination - Heteronomy - Hypothetical (conditional) imperative Kant Pure Reason: - The moral law, Kant thinks, is established and known through reason alone; it consists in a priori principals of pure reason.

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