Patho Group 5 Small Group Project 1.docx - Running head THE...

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Running head: THE AGING PROCESS 1 The Aging Process Related to the Loss of Cellular and Tissue Function Gary Goodwill, Kim Luckman, Chrissy Roberts, Paula White Maryville University NURS 611
THE AGING PROCESS 2 The Aging Process Related to the Loss of Cellular and Tissue Function As the body ages, organs, cells, and tissues begin to lose their ability to function appropriately. The organs of the human body work simultaneously with one another. When one system’s ability to function fails, it affects other organs within the body. Aging is normal and is defined as a global physiologic process that is imminent (McCance & Huether, 2014). A progressive loss of homeostatic mechanisms is identified with aging (McCance & Huether, 2014). This paper aims to discuss the impact aging has on the human body due to the cellular and tissue function loss. The aging process is affected by many extracellular factors including collagen binding, free radical increase effects to cells, fascia structure changes, tendons, bones, ligaments, joints, and cardiovascular disease (McCance & Huether, 2014). Tissue damage during aging is caused by free radicals that come from oxidative stress (McCance & Huether, 2014). These effects can lead to cells forming malignant tissues as a result of damage to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) (McCance & Huether, 2014). Atrophy, decrease in function, and cell loss are all components of cellular changes attributed to aging (McCance & Huether, 2014). DNA, ribonucleic acid (RNA), cell membranes, and cellular proteins are prone to injury in cells that are aged (McCance & Huether, 2014). Breaks, deletions, and additions are seen in DNA due to its vulnerability (McCance & Huether, 2014). Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations strip ATP from cells which is associated with aging (McCance & Huether, 2014). Stiffness or rigidity affects many of the body systems and are characteristics of changes seen in tissues as aging occurs (McCance & Huether, 2014). A gradual increase in peripheral resistance to the flow of blood is a result of stiffness in blood vessels and organs (McCance &
THE AGING PROCESS 3 Huether, 2014). The capacity of the lung to diffuse and the blood flow to organs also decreases (McCance & Huether, 2014). The endocrine and immune system undergo thymus atrophy as the body ages (McCance & Huether, 2014). Ova in women and spermatogenesis in men is shown to decrease with age (McCance & Huether, 2014). Breast and endometrium response reduces (McCance & Huether, 2014). The rate of emptying of the stomach along with hormone secretion and hydrochloric acid decreases (McCance & Huether, 2014). Mobility is affected due to muscular atrophy with a reduction in motor tone and contractility (McCance & Huether, 2014). Atrophy of the skin along with wrinkles and changes in fat and muscle are seen as the skin ages (McCance & Huether, 2014). Other changes include decreased height, neck circumference, thighs, and arms, pelvis widening, nose and ears elongation (McCance & Huether, 2014).

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