Lecture 4-Rocks.pptx - ROCKS Lecture 4 Rocks A solid...

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ROCKS Lecture 4
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Rocks A solid aggregate of one or more minerals, or mineral materials Consists of many mineral grains or crystals forming a solid mass Each rock contains a record of its own history Three broad categories Igneous Sedimentary Metamorphic
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Igneous Rocks An igneous rock is a rock formed by the solidification and crystallization of a cooling magma Magma , at high enough temperatures, rocks and minerals melt, and the natural hot, molten rock material is called magma Silicates are the most common minerals, and magmas are thus rich in silica. Magmas also contain some dissolved water and gases, and include some solid crystals suspended in the melt; iron content is variable and this variability is the basis for igneous rock classification
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Igneous Rocks Rocks formed from hot, molten rock material Usually composed of silicate minerals and some dissolved gases and water Molten materials are very hot Plutonic rocks form if magma cools inside earth’s crust (does not flow onto surface); coarse crystals will grow Volcanic rocks form if magma flows onto surface as lava ; glass
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Figures 2.10 a and b
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Igneous Rocks Felsic; low iron light toned Intermediat e Mafic; high iron dark toned Ultramafic Volcanic; extrusive; aphanitic Rhyolite Andesite Basalt Eclogite Plutonic; intrusive; phaneritic Granite Diorite Gabbro Peridotite
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Weathering of Rocks Chemical weathering Physical weathering Sediments Ions for cements
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Sedimentary Rocks
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