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Week 13 - Digestion

Week 13 - Digestion - Term Definition Dentition(Mastication...

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Term: Dentition (Mastication) Definition: The dentition (The arrangement or condition of the teeth in a particular species) of animals reflect their diet. There are 3 types of organisms with particular diets: Herbivore (plant based food), Carnivore (mainly animal tissue) and Omnivore (animal and plant based food) Herbivore: flat teeth for grinding branches, grasses and seeds. Since their food doesn't try to escape, they use their front teeth like pruning sheers to clip leaves and stems. Like mortar and pestle. Carnivore: sharp and scissor-like. Even their molars! Their front teeth bite and hold on while their long canine teeth tear into prey. Their molars are used for slicing rather than chewing because they mainly swallow their food in whole chunks. Omnivore: such as otters and bears, eat both plants and meat, so not surprisingly, they have a combination of sharp front teeth and grinding molars. Humans are set up with teeth like this, whether we eat meat or not, so look in your own mouth to see an example of omnivore teeth. Historically speaking, humans were OMNIVORES. Term: Occlusion (Mastication) Definition: Occlusion is IMPORTANT as this is how the teeth come together. If you increase the surface area, it is easier to break down. Example: Crushed ice versus cubed ice.
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Term: Mix (Mastication) Definition: 2 Mix Opps (Antrum - HCL and the bolus) and in the small intestine (chyme and liver/pancreatic enzymes) Term: Saliva (Mastication) Definition: Saliva is composed of the following: 1) Salivary AMYLASE (digestive enzyme) which breaks down complex sugars into simple sugars. 2) Water (98% -Majority) Water is to keep it moist and to work properly. Think of talking when you mouth is dry 3) Mucus (lubrication). Just the anticipation or visualization can stimulate the production of saliva. This is referred to as cephalic stimulation. Term: Enzymes (Mastication) Definition: Salivary Enzymes, Alkaline mucus to neutralize the stomach, Pepsinogen, the precursor of Pepsin which is an enzyme that breaks down proteins, HCL, which cleaves the Pepsinogen into Pepsin, keeps the stomach at an acidic pH to prevent possible infection by microorganisms, Pancreatic Amylase (breaks down sugars), Proteolytic enzymes (cuts protein), Pancreatic Lipase (breaks down fat), Alkaline fluid (to increase the pH). The LIVER produces bile to break down the fat.
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Term: Digestion (Mastication) Definition: Site of digestion is in the small intestine Term: Tongue (Mastication) Definition: Helps move the bolus to pharynx. Has pressure and chemo receptors. Term: Taste Buds (Mastication) Definition: Sweet, Sour, Bitter, Salty
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Term: Differences in Dentition Definition: The dentition (The arrangement or condition of the teeth in a particular species) of animals reflect their diet.
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