Genetics

Genetics - Term Definition Artificial Selection Purposeful...

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Term: Artificial Selection Definition: Purposeful matings to keep scientific wanted traits for generations Term: Belyaev Definition: 1950s. Domesticated foxes were selected and bred. Argressive vs domesticated foxes. Term: Gregor Mendel Definition: 1822-1884. Experimented with pea plants and is known as the father of genetics Term: phenotype Definition: observable characteristics Term: genotype Definition: genetic make up
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Term: Monohybrid cross Definition: matings between individuals that differ in one trait Term: Alelles Definition: An alternative form of a single gene Term: Genes Definition: Discrete units of alleles Term: Polymorphic Definition: The existance of two or more variants in a population of individuals, with at least two of the variants having frequencies greater than 1% Term: Monomorphic Definition: Genes that have only one allele that is normally present in a population
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Term: Law of Segregation Definition: Two alleles for each trait are seperated during gamete formation. Then, unite at random, one from each parent at fertilization Term: SBE1 Definition: Enzyme responsible for starch branching. Creates wrinkled peas and smooth peas Term: Test Cross Definition: Unknwon genotype crossed with homozygous recessive to determine the genotype of the unknown Term: Law of Product Definition: The probability of two or more independent events occuring together is the product of the probabilities that each event will occur by itself. Term: Heterozygote Cross Definition: phenotypic ratio of 3:1
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Term: The Law of Sum Definition: The probability of either of two mutually exculsie events occuring is the sum of their individual probabilities Term: Dihybrid Cross Definition: Two trait cross; phenotypic ratio of 9:3:3:1 Term: Thomas Hunt Morgan Definition: Experimented with Drosophila and discovered that the gene for eye colour is on the X chromosome. Also discovered chiasmata were recombination occurs. Term: Creighton and McClintock Definition: Studied Corn
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Term: A.H Sturtevant Definition: Proposed that % recombination or RF could be used as a gauge of the physical distance between any two genes on the same chromosome Term: Prokaryotic Promoter Regions Definition: -35 region and -10 region Term: RNA Polymerase Definition: Two alpha and 2 beta components. Sigma factor allows it to bind to promoter region Term: Monod and Jacob Definition: 1950s studied E.coli lactose utilization mutants Term: Polycistronic mRNA Definition: One mRNA with 2 or more transcribed genes on it
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Term: Operon Definition: A unit of DNA composed of specific genes, plus a promoter and operator that allows regulation if there are environmental changes Term: Constitutive mutants Definition: Always result in protein sysnthesis, irrespective of environmental conditions Term: Corynebacterium diphtheriae Definition: Toxin is repressed when the repressor and iron form together to create an
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