ORG CHEM Unit 1: Introduction to Organic Chemistry_1

ORG CHEM Unit 1: Introduction to Organic Chemistry_1 - Term...

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Term: When there are 2 or more carbon atoms in a molecule, each carbon retains what kind of shape if bonded to 4 other atoms? Definition: tetrahedral (109.5°) Term: What are Dipole/Dipole foces and how do they work? Definition: 1. D/D only occurs in polar molecules.2. Many molecules have permanent dipoles (slightly + & slightly - portions). The + ends of polar molecules will be attracted to the - ends of other molecules. This results in a D/D attractive force that holds molecules together. Term: What is surface tension? Definition: Pertains to the top-most layer of liquid. The liquid-air interface. Surface molecules have no "neighbours" above to counteract the downward pull of those below, and the unbalanced forces provide the surface with special properties not found in the rest of the liquid. These forces cause a "tightening" of the liquid surface (like elastic). Like any elastic, the surface resists stretching and makes itself as small as possible - this causes liquids to be spherical (since its the smallest surface area for the volume).
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Term: What are the 3 primary attributes of carbon? Definition: 1. It's stable ? can form long carbon chains containing hundreds of atoms2. Has 4 valence e? ? forms a lot of bonds (including branched chains)3. Is small ? facilitates the existence of multiple bonds Term: What are the guidelines for naming binary compounds? (3 points) *** How do the rules change with it's ionic compounds vs covalent compounds? Definition: 1. Element that appears first retains its elemental name.2. The second element begins with a root derived from its elemental name and ends with the suffix - ide.3. When there is more than one atom of a given element in the formula, the name of the element usually contains a prefix that specifies the number of atoms present. *** Ionic compounds: Only use 1st two rules ? no numerical prefixes*** Covalent compounds: Use all three rules. Term: List the 4 exceptions to the octet rule. Definition: * H only has 2 e?* S and P can have more than 8 e?* B can have 6 e? Term: Greater surface area equals ____ boiling point. Definition: higher
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Term: What is important about connectivity? How does this relate to drawing of the lewis structure? Definition: It tells us which atoms are bonded to which. The chemical formula often tells us how the lewis structure should be drawn. Term: The more e? a molecule has (or the larger it is), the ________ it's London Disperson. This correlates to __________ melting and boiling points. Definition: stronger. higher. Term: What is a saturated hydrocarbon and what is their formula? Definition: Compounds containing only carbons and as many H atoms that they can possibly hold. Formula is: C(n)H(2n)+2 Term: How do you determine a molecule or polyatomic ion's shape? Definition: Use VSEPR theory, which states:1. Count each ond around the central atom (whether single, double, or triple) as one VSEPR pair.2. Count each lone pair around the central atom as one VSEPR pair.
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Term: What is H-bonding important for determining?
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