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Research Methods Exam 1

Research Methods Exam 1 - Term Definition Alternative...

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Term: Alternative explanations Definition: Part of causal inference; a potential alternative cause of an observed relationship between variables. Term: Covariation of cause and effect Definition: Part of causal inference; observing that a change in one variable is accompanied by a change in a second variable. Term: Empiricism Definition: Use of objective observations to answer a question about the nature of behavior. Term: Falsifiability Definition: The principle that a good scientific idea or theory should be capable of being shown to be false when tested using scientific methods. Term: Peer review Definition: The process of judging the scientific merit of research through review by other scientists with the expertise to evaluate the research.
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Term: Program evaluation Definition: Research designed to assess procedures (e.g., social reforms, innovations) that are designed to produce certain changes or outcomes in a target population. Term: Pseudoscience Definition: Claims that are made on the basis of evidence that, despite appearances, is not based on the principles of the scientific method. Term: Temporal precedence Definition: Part of causal inference; the cause occurs before the effect. Term: Hypothesis Definition: An assertion about what is true in a particular situation; often, a statement asserting that two or more variables are related to one another. Term: Prediction Definition: An assertion concerning what will occur in a particular research investigation.
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Term: Theory Definition: A systematic, coherent, and logical set of ideas about a particular topic or phenomenon that serves to organize and explain data and generate new knowledge. Term: Autonomy (Belmont Report) Definition: Principle that individuals in research investigations are capable of making a decision of whether to participate. Term: Beneficence (Belmont Report) Definition: Principle that research should have beneficial effects while minimizing any harmful effects. Term: Debriefing Definition: Explanation of the purposes of the research that is given to participants following their participation in the research. Term: Deception Definition: Misinformation that a participant receives during a research investigation.
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Term: Informed consent Definition: In research ethics, the principle that participants in an experiment be informed in advance of all aspects of the research that might influence their decision to participate.
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