Pharmacology midterm

Pharmacology midterm - Term Definition What is dissolution...

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Term: What is dissolution and what inhibits it? Definition: It is when a drug in solid for disintegrates into small particles to dissolve into a liquid. Food and some drugs inhibit it Term: What is absorption? What inhibits it? Definition: Process of a drug getting ready for absorption. INHIBITS: pain, stress. fatty, hot, and solid foods slow down gastric emptying times Term: How are lipid soluble drugs absorbed? Definition: The only one to be absorbed readily through the GI tract Term: How are water soluble drugs absorbed? Definition: they need a carrier or an enzyme or a protein to pass through a membrane Term: When there are large molecules to go through the GI membrane, do ionized or nonionized drugs pass through? Definition: nonionized
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Term: What for of drug is absorbed rapidly from the GI tract? Definition: nonionized and lipid soluble are faster than water soluble and ionized drugs Term: What is passive absorption? Definition: Does not require energy. Occurs mostly by diffusion. Term: What is active absorption? Definition: requires energy and a carrier like an enzyme or a protein. Term: What is pinocytosis? Definition: a cell carries it across the membrane by engulfing it
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Term: What is the effect of laxatives and narcotics on absorption? Definition: Laxatives SHORTEN the time the drug is IN the GI tract which decreases absorption. Narcotics decrease peristalsis, increasing the time the drug is in the GI tract. Term: What do Protein binding drugs bind to? Does this make the drug readily available? Definition: albumin. NO. The drug bound to albumin is inactive because it is not available to receptors. FREE DRUGS are the only drugs available for use. Term: What is bioavailability? Which rout has the greatest and least bioavailability? Definition: The % of administered drug that reaches the systemic circulation. Greatest= IV, Least= PO Term: What is Hepatic first pass? Definition: Process in which a drug does not go directly into the systemic circulation following ORAL absorption but passes from the intestinal lumen to the live first via the portal vein.
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Term: What are trough levels? Definition: the lowest plasma concentration of a drug Term: what are peak levels? Definition: the highest plasma concentration of a drug Term: What is MEC? Definition: Minimum Effective Concentration: the therapeutic minimum. If it is BELOW this it does not work. Term: What is MTC? Definition: Maximum effective concentration. AKA: MTC= Minimum Toxic Concentration). Too high of a drug level that results in toxicity Term: What is an agonist? Definition: a drugs that mimics a chemical in the body
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Term: What is an antagonist? Definition: 2 drugs are combined that have opposite effects. They decrease or negate each other. Term: What is a synergistic reaction? Definition: Potentiation. The effect of COMBINED drugs from DIFFERENT categories is greater than either of the drugs by itself.
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