Anatomy

Anatomy - Term Definition Gross Anatomy Basics Axial figure...

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Term: Gross Anatomy Basics: Axial Definition: figure 7.1 a. the long axis of the body b. protect, support, carry c. consists of: skull, vertebral column, rib cage Term: Gross Anatomy Basics: Appendicular Definition: a. everything else b. movement, manipulation c. consists of: upper and lower limbs, girdles (attach axial and appen) Term: Bones Classified by Shape: Long Definition: figure 6.2 o longer than wide; elongated o limb bones Term: Bones Classified by Shape: Short Definition: o equally broad and long o cube-like or roundish o wrist and ankle bones o patella Term: Bones Classified by Shape: Flat Definition: o thin, flattened, usually curved o sternum o ribs o skull bones
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Term: Bones Classified by Shape: Irregular Definition: o none of the above o vertebrae o facial bones Term: Functions of the Skeleton: Protection Definition: o skull protects the brain o vertebrae protect the spinal cord o rib cage protects thoracic viscera o heart & lungs Term: Functions of the Skeleton: Support Definition: a. bone o pelvis supports lower abdominal viscera (bladder, lower colon) o legs bear weight b. cartilage Term: Functions of the Skeleton: Movement Definition: o skeletal muscles attached by tendons o joint o formed where 2 or more bones come together o also called "atriculations"
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Term: Functions of the Skeleton: Mineral Storage Definition: o stored in matrix o calcium and phosphate Term: Functions of the Skeleton: Blood Cell Production (hematopoiesis) Definition: o produced in marrow cavities of certain bones o "red marrow" o Triglyceride storage Term: Skeletal Tissue: Bone Definition: 1. Bone a. Compact o dense o found on outer surface of all bones b. Spongy o lighter o found inside most bones Term: Skeletal Tissue: Hyaline Cartilage Definition: a.Hyaline cartilage figure 4.8g 1) slightly flexible, durable support 2) locations within skeleton o embryonic skeleton, growth plate, costal cartilage, articular cartilage, nose, trachea, larynx
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Term: Skeletal Tissue: Elastic Cartilage Definition: figure 4.8h 1) flexible, retains shape with repeated bending 2) locations within skeleton o external ear, epiglottis (flap of skin in back of throat (swallowing)) Term: Skeletal Tissue: Fibrocartilage Definition: figure 4.8i 1) highly compressible; great tensile strength 2) locations within skeleton o intervertebral disks o articular disks Term: Skeletal Tissue: Other connective tissue Definition: a. blood (red marrow) b. adipose (yellow marrow) c. dense irregular connective tissue (periosteum) Term: Bone Tissue Histology: Chemical Composition of Matrix: Organic: proteins Definition: (osteod) a. 1/3 of bone's matrix b. proteins o prtoeoglycans & glycoproteins o increase water content of bones o collagen
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Term: Bone Tissue Histology: Chemical Composition of Matrix: Organic: resilience Definition: o gives tensile strength o ability to resist stretch and twist Term: Bone Tissue Histology: Chemical Composition of Matrix: Organic: "sacrificial bonds" Definition: o collagen proteins have bonds between them o with force, these bonds readily break o dissipating energy o like a car bumper on impact
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