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HA Module 4: Assessment of the Integument (Skin, Hair, and Nails)

HA Module 4: Assessment of the Integument (Skin, Hair, and Nails)

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Term: Albinism Definition: A hereditary condition characterized by a partial or total lack of melanin pigment. (skin, hair, eye) Term: Alopecia Definition: Partial or complete loss of hair; Baldness. Term: Atrophy Definition: Any weakening or degeneration (especially through lack of use); Wasting away. Term: Beau's Lines Definition: Horizontal depressions that appear as white lines across the fingernails as a sign of an acute severe illness such as malnutrition, systematic disease, thyroid dysfunction, trauma, or coronary occlusion
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Term: Bulla Definition: Larger than 1 cm diameter; usually single chambered (unilocular); superficial in epidermis; it is thin walled, so it ruptures easily. Ex: friction blister, pemphigus, burns, contact dermatitis. Term: Chloasma Definition: Tan or brown pigmentation, particularly of the forehead, cheeks, and nose, commonly associated with pregnancy, the use of oral contraceptives, or hormone replacement therapy; Mask of pregnancy. Term: Clubbing Definition: Bulging of the tissues at the nail base caused by insufficient oxygenation at the periphery, resulting from conditions such as chronic emphysema and congenital heart disease. Term: Crusting Definition: Dried serum, pus, or blood on the skin; slightly elevated; size and color vary.
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Term: Cyanosis Definition: Bluish discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes caused by an excess of deoxygenated hemoglobin in the blood or a structural defect in the hemoglobin molecule. Light skin ppl: bluish tint. Dark skin ppl: ashen-gray to pale tint Term: Cyst Definition: A small anatomically normal sac or bladderlike structure (especially one containing fluid). Term: Ecchymosis Definition: Discoloration of the skin or bruise caused by leakage of blood into subcutaneous tissues as a result of trauma to underlying tissues. (deeper in color in dark skin ppl) Term: Erosion Definition: Wearing away or loss of epidermis. (scratch the skin)
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Term: Erythema Definition: Redness or inflammation of the skin or mucous membranes that is a result of dilation and congestion of superficial capillaries; sunburn is an example. Term: Excoriation Definition: Injury to the surface of the skin caused by abrasion; raw or irritated lesion Term: Fissure Definition: A long narrow slit or groove that divides an organ into lobes. Term: Hematoma Definition: Collection of blood trapped in the tissues of the skin or an organ. (ex: contusions or black eyes) Term: Hirsutism Definition: Abnormal condition characterized by excessive growth of hair, especially in women.
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Term: Jaundice Definition: Yellow discoloration of the skin, mucous membranes, and sclera caused by greater-than-normal amounts of bilirubin in the blood. In dark skinned ppl look at sclera, palmar and plantar surfaces Term: Keloid Definition: Overgrowth of scar tissue caused by excessive collagen formation.
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