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Pathophysiology Exam 1

Pathophysiology Exam 1 - Term Definition Define Etiology...

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Term: Define Etiology Definition: Cause of a disease, risk factors. Term: Define Pathogenesis Definition: Chronological series of events from the beginning of a disease through the end Term: Define Morphology Definition: Cellular changes that occur with a disease, change in shape for survival Term: Define Clinical Manifestation Definition: Signs (objective) are observed and Symptoms (subjective) are verbalized by the patient. Labs and x-rays are not clinical manifestations. Term: Diagnosis, Medical vs Nursing Definition: Medical diagnosis is the name of the disease or the etiology/cause, whereas a nursing diagnosis is care-based, a plan of action.
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Term: Define Clinical Course Definition: How the disease or illness progresses over time; acute, sub-acute, chronic, pre-clinical, sub-clinical descriptors. Term: Define Pathophysiology Definition: Cellular, organ, and total-body changes associated with a disease Term: Describe Cellular Atrophy Definition: A cell gets smaller when it has less work to do, becoming more efficient and expending less energy. This is ADAPTIVE and REVERSIBLE. Term: Describe Cellular Hypertrophy Definition: Cells that cannot reproduce become bigger to compensate for incereased workload, like heart and skeletal muscle cells. Adaptive and Reversible. Term: Describe Cellular Hyperplasia Definition: Cells that are able to replicate increase in number when needed, like during wound healing, and will stop increasing when need is met.
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Term: Describe Cellular Metaplasia Definition: Adaptation causes one cell type to be replaced by another cell type (sometimes initiated by irritant, ex: ciliated changes to squamous epithelium in smoker). Can be cancer precursor. Term: Describe Cellular Dysplasia Definition: Changes in cell shape, size, and appearance. Reversible, but can be a cancer precursor. Term: What are the 5 causes of cell injury? Definition: Hypoxia: anaerobic attempts at functioning produce excessive lactic acid damaging the cell. Physical Agents: trauma or extreme temperature. Chemical Agents: chemicals found anywhere can damage cells. Biologic Agents: viruses use/alter DNA to replicate, bacteria release endotoxins. Ionizing Radiation: produces free radicals, interferes with DNA synthesis, can cause cancer, and causes IRREVERSIBLE DAMAGE!
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Term: What are the three main ways cell-injury-causes promote damage? Definition: ATP inactivation -- Free-Radical Production -- Impaired Calcium homeostasis -- Term: What happens during the Vascular stage of inflammation? Definition: Prostoglandins and leukotrienes cause VASODILATION, redness and warmth result, more blood can access the affected area to bring correct cells, increased VASCULAR PERMEABILITY allows fluids to access appropriate tissues. Vascular permeability causes swelling and pain as the tissue Term: What are the 5 types of Exudate?
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