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Biology Chapter 3

Biology Chapter 3 - Term Definition Carbon The basis of...

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Term: Carbon Definition: The basis of most molecules in living organisms Term: Organic Compounds Definition: Carbon-based molecules Term: Hydrocarbons Definition: Compounds composed of only carbon and hydrogen Term: Carbon skeleton Definition: The chain of carbon atoms in an organic molecule Term: Isomers Definition: Compounds made of all the same atoms that are arranged differently
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Term: Functional groups Definition: A specific configuration of atoms commonly attached to the carbon skeletons of organic molecules and involved in chemical reactions. Term: Hydrophilic Definition: Water-loving (soluble on water) Term: Hydroxyl Group Definition: Consists of a hydrogen atom bonded to an oxygen atom (ex. alcohol) Term: Carbonyl Group Definition: A carbon atom is linked by a double bond to an oxygen atom (ex. aldehyde) Term: Carboxyl Group Definition: Consists of a carbon double-bonded to an oxygen atom and also bonded to a hydroxyl group. (ex. carboxylic acid)
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Term: Amino Group Definition: Has a nitrogen bonded to two hydrogens and the carbon skeleton Term: Phosphate Group Definition: Consists of a phosphorus atom bonded to four oxygen atoms Term: Methyl Group Definition: Consists of a carbon bonded to three hydrogens.
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