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ICGSE Chemistry

ICGSE Chemistry - Term Definition Define electrolyte A...

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Term: Define electrolyte Definition: A substance that conducts electricity when molten or dissolved in water Term: Describe electroplating Definition: When one metal is plated with another; for appearance or protection Term: Outline the importance of purity in everyday substances Definition: Purity is needed in ; Food -- to prevent harmful effects Drugs -- to prevent harmful effects Computer chips -- so they work correctly Term: Describe the process of paper chromatography Definition: Adding a solvent to a fabric or filter paper to separated pigments; different solubility or attraction to the filter paper will cause them to separate Term: Describe the formation of carbon dioxide as a product of reaction of acid and carbonate Definition: When acid rain reacts with limestone (carbonate) it releases carbon dioxide
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Term: Describe the giant covalent structures of graphite Definition: A three dimensional network of covalent bonds; arranged as layers of flat hexagons Term: Describe the term compound Definition: A substance made of two or more different types of atoms joined by a chemical bond Term: Define exothermic reaction Definition: A reaction that releases or gives out energy Term: Outline the difference between a physical and chemical change Definition: Physical change simply change the state of matter of an element, a chemical change is the result of reaction effecting the electrons Term: State the test and result for Ammonia Gas Definition: Turns damp red litmus blue
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Term: Describe the need for Nitrogen fertilizers Definition: For the healthy growth of leaves and stems Term: State the test and result for Oxygen Gas Definition: Glowing splint relights Term: State the test and result for Iron (III) (Cation) Definition: Sodium hydroxide; brown insoluble precipitate Aqueous ammonia; brown insoluble precipitate Term: State the general chemical properties of metals Definition: 1, 2 or 3 Valence electrons Make ionic bonds Make basic oxides React with acid to give salt + hydrogen Term: Explain water purification by filtration Definition: Grids, sand, gravel and aluminum sulfate are used to filter water
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Term: Define mole Definition: The relative formula mass of a substance in grams Term: Describe the structure of Silicone (IV) Oxide Definition: A giant covalent lattice similar to diamond with silicon and oxygen forming multiple bonds Term: List 4 ways the rate of a reaction can be altered Definition: Surface area Temperature Concentration Catalyst (Pressure) Term: Define cathode Definition: The negative electrode Term: Describe the products of electrolysis of molten lead II bromide Definition: Lead bromide decomposes; bromine gas is formed at the anode, MOLTEN LEAD DRIPS from the cathode
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Term: State the general principals of electrolysis Definition: Metals or hydrogen are formed at the cathode Nonmetals (except hydrogen) are formed at the anode Term: State two substances separated via FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION Definition: Alcohol and Water Term: State the effects of air pollutants on health Definition: Can cause poisoning Birth defects
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