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Anatomy Exam 1

Anatomy Exam 1 - Term Definition histology the study of...

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Term: histology Definition: the study of tissues Term: tissues Definition: the fabric of the body (woven) groups of cells that are similar in structure and perform a common/related function Term: organ Definition: group of tissues working together to perform a function Term: the 4 main body tissues are Definition: epithelial, connective, muscular, nervous Term: main function of epithelial Definition: covering exposed surfaces, lining internal passages/chambers, and producing glandular secretions
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Term: main function of connective Definition: fill internal spaces, provides structural support, stores energy, protects Term: main function of nervous Definition: controls, conducts electrical impulses, carries information Term: main function of muscular tissue Definition: producing movement Term: epithelial tissue Definition: covers, lines, composed of one or more layers of closely packed cells, ecm is mainly interstitial fluid Term: epithelium has 5 characteristics Definition: cellularity, polarity, attachment to a basement membrane, avascular but innervated, regeneration
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Term: cellularity of epithelia Definition: epithelium composed almost entirely of tightly packed cells w connections bt Term: desmosomes Definition: anchoring junctions that hold cells together in high stress; abundant in tissues subjected to high mechanical stress Term: tight junctions Definition: form an impermeable junction that encircles the cell; prevents molecules from passing through extracellular space bt adjacent cells; helps maintain polarity Term: gap junctions Definition: nexus; communicating junctions bt adjacent cells that allow ions/sm molecules to pass bc cells are chemically connected Term: polarity of epithelia Definition: apical/basal plarity; presence of structural and functional differences bt the exposed and attached surfaces
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Term: apical surface Definition: an upper/free surface exposed to external environment or internal body surface that may have microvilli or cilia Term: basal surface Definition: lower surface that attaches to the underlying connective tissue Term: attachment of epithelia to basement membrane Definition: Epithelia are attached to a non cellular adhesive sheet at the basal surface that attaches epithelium to underlying connective tissues (basement membrane) Term: basement membrane is important bc Definition: it is produced by the basal cells and connective tissue to form a selective molecular barrier bt epithelium and ct. helps resist stretching, tearing, and defines the epithelial boundary and keeps things out of the deeper tissues
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Term: epithelium is avascular but innervated Definition: lacks blood vessels but is nourished by substances diffusing from the blood vessels in the underlying connective tissues; epithelium is richly innervated to detect changes in the environment Term: regeneration of epithelium Definition: if and when the apical-basal polarity and lateral contacts are destroyed epithelia cells reproduce rapidly by cell division as long as they receive adequate nutrition Term: simple epithelia
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