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BIO 214 Week 2

BIO 214 Week 2 - Term Definition Cell theory All organisms...

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Term: Cell theory Definition: All organisms composed of one or more cells Cell is the basic structural unit of life Cells can arise only by division from preexisting cell Term: Nucleus Definition: key characteristic organelle of Eukaryotes Term: Eukaryotes vs Prokaryotes Definition: Eukaryotes- lots of internal structure Prokaryotes- little internal structure Term: Archaebacteria, eubacteria Definition: examples of prokaryotes Eukaryotes more closely related to archaebacteria Term: Anaerobic Definition: lacking oxygen (archaea)
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Term: Escherichia coli (E. coli) Definition: type of Eubacteria Term: Similarities between Eukaryotes, prokaryotes Definition: Limiting plasma membrane Genetic code Similar transcription, translation mechanisms Metabolism is common ATP as energy Photosynthesis mechanism similar Membrane proteins produced similarly Proteasomes- protein digestion machines Term: Eukaryote, prokaryote similarities indicate Definition: evolution of eukaryotes from prokaryotic ancestors Term: Major differences- eukaryotes Definition: Cytoplasm and nucleus are separate Complex chromosome structure made of chromatin Organelles Specialized organelles for energy- mitochondria, chloroplasts Cytoskeleton
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Term: Minor differences- eukaryote characteristics Definition: cilia, flagella Endocytosis Cellulose containing cell walls Microtubule driven cell divisions Diploidy- two alleles of each gene Three RNA polymerases Sexual reproduction by meiosis to produce haploid cells to ultimately lead to fertilization Term: Delimits cell, selective transport Definition: plasma membrane Term: rigid layer in plants, fungi, protists, prokaryotes Definition: cell wall Term: contains DNA, site of RNA transcription Definition: Nucleus
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Term: sub-structure of nucleus, ribosome production Definition: nucleolus Term: gel-like inside plasma membrane and outside nucleus Definition: cytoplasm Term: liquid phase of cytoplasm Definition: cytosol Term: ribonucleoprotein particles, machine for translation Definition: ribosomes Term: large protein-degrading enzyme complex Definition: proteosome
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Term: energy production, oxidative phosphorylation Definition: mitochondria Term: energy production, photosynthesis Definition: chloroplast Term: involved in oxidative reactions Definition: peroxisome Term: series of organelles involved in secretion of proteins Definition: endomembrane system Term: lipid synthesis Definition: smooth endoplasmic reticulum
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Term: site of synthesis of secreted proteins Definition: rough endoplasmic reticulum Term: site of modification of proteins, packaging of proteins into vesicles for secretion Definition: golgi complex Term: small membrane-bound compartments Definition: vesicles Term: mediates sorting of material taken up from outside Definition: endosome Term: digestive organelle in animal cells Definition: lysosome
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Term: digestive organelle in plant, fungal, protist cells Definition: vacuole Term: site of secretion of proteins
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