NURS 365 Deck 2

NURS 365 Deck 2 - Term Definition RCT randomized controlled...

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Term: RCT Definition: randomized controlled trialsmost reliable to assess drug therapies 3 features: 1- use of controls 2- randomization 3 - blinding Term: preclinical test Definition: animalstest for: toxicity, pharmacokinetics, and useful effectsbw 1-5 years Term: clinical testing Definition: humansdone in 4 phases (4th after on the market) bw 2-10 years Term: chemical vs generic vs trade names Definition: chemical = chemistry generic= US adopted name less complexthan chemical but more than trade trade = brand which drug is marketed, comake them easy to remember, say Term: 4 processes ofpharmacokinetics Definition: 1- absorption2-distribution3-meta bolism4-excretion
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Term: absorbtion Definition: mvmt of drug from site of admin into blood Term: distribution Definition: mvmt from blood to interstitial space of tissues and from there into cells Term: metabolism Definition: biotransformation - enzymaticall mediated alteration of drug structure Term: excretion Definition: mvmt of drugs and their metabolites out of the body Term: elimination Definition: metabolism plus excretion
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Term: drug therapy Definition: max effect min harm Term: pharmacokinetic factors used to determine Definition: route, dose, and schedule Term: 3 ways drugs cross cell membranes Definition: 1- through channels or pores2- with aid of a transport system3-direct penetration of membrane****most common Term: channel and pore transport Definition: only small molecules and must be right portex: ions like K and NA Term: Transport system Definition: *selective - depends on drug structure EX: P-Glycoprotein or "multi-drug transporter protein"> transports many drugs out of the cell
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Term: Direct penetration Definition: most drugs too big for channels/pores andlack transport system *must be lipid soluble to pass membrane Term: non lipid soluble molecules Definition: polar molecules - ex: h2oions - have a charge, can NOT cross membrane Term: quaternary ammonium compounds Definition: molecules with at least one nitrogen atom AND carry a POSITIVE charge always -unusual bc nitrogen has 4 chemical bonds ..... so unable to cross membranes Term: pH-dependent ionization Definition: weak acids or weak basescharge determined by pH of medium(remember acid= proton donor)acids ionize in basic mediabases ionize in acidic media
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Term: Ion trapping Definition: pH partitioningwhen a pH gradient bw two sides of membrane .... acid drugs accumulate on alkaline sidebasic "" on the acidic sidewhere pH favors ionization once ionized on the other side...can't move back Term: rate of dissolution of drug Definition: bf absorption must dissolve can be formulated for fast or slow Term: surface area (rate) Definition: surface area available for absorption determines ratelarger = fasterex: most oral drugs absorbed in smallintestine bc microvilli Term: blood flow (rate) Definition: more rapidly where blood flow is highbc maintain gradient bw concentration of drug inside and outside blood
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Term: lipid solubility (rate) Definition: bc lipid soluble drugs can cross membrane Term: pH partitioning (rate) Definition:
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