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Microbiology Unit II

Microbiology Unit II - Term Definition Skin Colonization...

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Term: Skin Colonization Definition: Colonized with gram-positive organism & yeast. Hair follicles & sebaceous glands are colonized Term: Mouth/Intestine Colonization Definition: Colonized with anaerobes. Colonization increases from stomach to large intestine. Term: Nose/Pharynx Colonization Definition: Gram positive & negative cocci. Remainder of respiratory tract is sterile Term: UG Tract Definition: Urethra is transiently colonized. Vaginal colonization changes with age. Gram positive cocci before puberty then lactobacillus acidophilus after puberty. Reduces pH & maintains normal flora.
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Term: Commensalism Definition: Defined as larger organism providing habitat for smaller organism. No obvious benefit or harm. Term: Eukaryotes Definition: May be multicellular or unicellular. 80S, DNA carried out in chromosomes bounded by nuclear membrane. Transcription followed by movement of mRNA from nucleus to cytoplasm. Term: Prokaryotes Definition: 70S. Genome is single chromosome, plasmids, perhaps bacteriophages. No nucleus. Transcription & translation coupled. Complex cell envelope. Term: Plasmid Definition: Small DNA molecule that is physically separate from & can replicate independently of chromosomal DNA. Term: Bacterial Classfication Definition: Staining, Shape, Respiration, Immunologic typign (serotyping), Biochemical Tests, Nucleic acids.
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Term: Fungi Definition: Unicellular (yeast) or multicellular (filamentous) eukaryotic organisms. Filamentous form composed of hyphae with conidia (spores). Pathogenic fungi may be dimorphic (unicellular yeast in host, filamentous in environment). Systemic infections in immunocompromised patients. Term: Helminths Definition: Parasitic worms. Transmission by ingestion of infected tissue or egg, skin penetration, arthropod vector. Life cycle complex. Term: Anthropods Definition: Blood feeders such as mosquitos. Some are transient while others live on body for long periods of time. Term: Prions Definition: Infectious proteinaceous particles.
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Term: Acid Fast Bacteria Definition: Members of the genus mycobacterium. Presumptive diagnosis for TB. Cell wall contains long fatty acids (mycolic acid). Gram stains poorly. Difficult to decolorize with acetone. More resistant than capsule bacteria. Will cause formation of granules. Term: Periplasmic space Definition: Only in gram negative bacteria. Space between outer & inner membrane. Includes peptidoglycan. Has resistance enzymes including beta lactamases. Term: Outer Membrane Definition: Only in gram negative cells. Composed of LPS & phospholipids. LPS is virulence factor and is composed of 1. repeating sugar residues (O-antigen for serotyping), 2. core sugars, 3. fatty acid moieties (Lipid A, bioactive portion). Term: Bacterial Cell Wall Definition: Composed of disaccharides (NAG & NAM). Peptide bridges between NAM cross-link subunits. Gram positive has pentaglycine between lysine & D-Ala.
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