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Chemistry Chapter 1

Chemistry Chapter 1 - Term Definition Chemistry The science...

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Unformatted text preview: Term: Definition: Chemistry The science that investigates and explains the structure and properties of matter. Term: Definition: Matter Anything that takes up space and has mass. Term: Definition: Mass Measure of the amount of matter that an object contains. Term: Definition: Properties Describe the characteristics and behavior of matter, including the changes that matter undergoes. Term: Definition: Macroscopic Matter that is large enough to be seen. Term: Definition: STM Scanning Tunneling Microscope Term: Definition: Scientific Model A thinking device that helps you understand and explain macroscopic observations. Term: Definition: Qualitative Observation An observation that can be made without measurement. Term: Definition: Quantitative Observation An observation that uses measurement. Term: Definition: Substance Matter with the same fixed composition and properties. Term: Definition: Mixture A combination of two or more substances in which the basic identity of each substance is not changed. Term: Definition: Examples of Mixture Seawater, soil, seascape, air, blood, and solder. Term: Definition: Physical change A change in matter that does not involve a change in the identity of the substance. Term: Definition: Examples of Physical Change Boiling, freezing, melting, evaporating, dissolving, and crystalizing. Term: Definition: Physical Properties Characteristics of a sample of matter that can be observed or measured without any change in its identity. Term: Definition: Examples of Physical Properties (sample of matter) Solubility, melting point, boiling point, color, density, electrical conductivity, and physical state (solid, liquid, or gas). Term: Definition: Heterogeneous Mixture A mixture that does not have a uniform composition and in which the individual substances remain distinct. Ex: dirt, blood, milk Term: Definition: Homogeneous Mixture A mixture which has uniform composition and properties throughout. Ex: air, gasoline, soda Term: Definition: Solution Another word for homogeneous mixture. Term: Definition: Alloys Solid solutions that contain different metals and sometimes nonmetallic substances. Term: Definition: Some Common Alloys Stainless steel / Bronze / Brass / Sterling Silver / 14-karat Gold / 18-karat White Gold / Solder (electronic) Term: Definition: Elements The simplest form of matter. Ex: gold, diamonds, iron, oxygen Term: Definition: Compound A chemical combination of two or more different elements joined together in a fixed proportion. Ex: salt, baking soda, sugar Term: Definition: Formula A combination of the chemical symbols that show what elements make up a compound and the number of atoms of each element. Term: Definition: 3 Physical States Solid, liquid, and gas Term: Definition: Volatile Substances that change to a gas easily at room temperature. Term: Definition: Density The amount of matter (mass) contained in a unit of volume. Term: Definition: Chemical Properties Properties that can be observed only when there is a change in the composition of the substance. Term: Definition: Chemical Change The change of one or more substances into other substances. Term: Definition: Chemical Reaction Another term for chemical change. Terms: decompose, explode, rust, oxidize, corrode, tarnish, ferment, burn, rot Term: Definition: All matter is made of atoms and any chemical change involves only a rearrangement of the atoms. Term: Definition: Law of Conservation of Mass In a chemical change, matter is neither created nor destroyed. Term: Definition: Energy The capacity to do work. Term: Definition: Exothermic Reactions Chemical reactions that give off heat energy. Term: Definition: Endothermic Reactions Chemical reactions that absorb heat energy. Term: Definition: Macroscopic observations reflect the submicroscopic structures of matter. Term: Definition: Mixtures are heterogeneous or homogeneous (solutions). Term: Substances are classified as elements or compounds. Elements are the building blocks of all matter. Definition: Term: Definition: Every substance has a unique set of physical and chemical properties. Term: Definition: The density of a sample of matter is the amount of matter (mass in grams) in a unit volume (usually a milliliter). Term: Definition: Chemical changes - also called chemical reactions - involve substances forming different substances. Term: Definition: In a chemical reaction, atoms are never created or destroyed. Term: Physical and chemical changes absorb or release energy. Definition: ...
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