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Nausea, Vomiting, Diarrhea, & Constipation

Nausea, Vomiting, Diarrhea, & Constipation - Term...

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Term: What is nausea? Definition: The feeling of the urge to throw up Term: What is vomiting? Definition: Forceful evacuation of content from your stomach Term: What is regurgitation? Definition: When your lower esophageal sphincter does not close and the content bubbles up (NOT forceful) Term: What are the endoscopic/imaging procedures needed to be done for a diagnostic work-up for N/V? Definition: Abdominal x-ray Ultrasound CT HIDA scan EGD ERCP
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Term: What are the laboratory studies needed to be done for a diagnostic work-up for N/V? Definition: CMP CBC Amylase/lipase Term: When do you do an abdominal x-ray? Definition: ACUTE SETTING DO NOT do in ER setting THis is a quick and easy to do procedure to show you if there is an obstruction (through dilated part of bowel) or a perforation (air collecting under the diaphragm) Term: When do you do an ultrasound? Definition: ACUTE SETTING Used most classically to look at the gallbladder (also kidney and appendix) If you suspect gallstones or thickened lining of the gallbladder Term: When do you do a CT? Definition: ACUTE SETTING STUDY OF CHOICE for abdominal pain
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Term: When do you do a HIDA scan? Definition: If your ultrasound is negative for gallbladder but you still suspect an issue with the gallbladder NOT done acutely Term: When do you do an EGD? Definition: Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (upper scope) NOT DONE FIRST LINE Term: When do you do an ERCP? Definition: Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography Looking specifically at the ducts of the gallbladder (any blockages) Term: When do you do a CMP, CBC, or Amylase/lipase? Definition: CMP- to look at electrolytes and look at liver functions CBC- to look for infection (white blood cell count) Amylase/lipase- looks at your pancreas (pancreatitis)
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Term: How do you treat mild-moderate nausea/vomiting? Definition: Clear liquids Advance to small quantities of bland food Antiemetic medications Term: How do you treat moderate-severe nausea/vomiting (unable to keep fluids down)? Definition: Hospitalization with IV fluids Antiemetic medications NG tube (nasogastric tube to suction out stomach contents) in SEVERE situations Term: What are the 5 main anti-emetic medications? Definition: Odansetron Promethazine Metaclopramide Aprepitant Dexamethasone Term: When do you use Odansetron? Definition: Acute onset n/v Post-operative n/v Hyperemesis gravidum
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Term: When do you use promethazine? Definition: Acute onset n/v Term: When do you use metaclopramide? Definition: Gastroparesis (delayed gastric emptying) Adjunct for intractable N/V Term: When do you use Aprepitant? Definition: Chemotherapy Term: When do you use dexamethasone? Definition: Post-operative n/v Chemotherapy
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Term: Describe Odansetron (class, indications, dosage form, pharmacology, and safety/monitoring)?
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