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biochem part 2

biochem part 2 - Term Definition Chromosome classification...

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Term: Chromosome classification Definition: Based on International System of Human Cytogenetic Nomenclature (ISCN) Term: how many groups are autosome divided by and how are they divided? Definition: Autosomes divided into 7 groups by size & position of centromere Term: Metaphase chromosomes divided into 2 sister chromatids held together at ______ Definition: centromere Term: Delineates short arm (p) & long arm (q) Definition: Term: Position of centromere used for what morphologic descriptions? Definition: Metacentric Submetacentric Acrocentric
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Term: Metacentric Definition: Chromosome 1) p length ? q length Term: Submetacentric Definition: (Chromosome 9) p length < q length Term: Acrocentric Definition: (Chromosome 14) p length << q length Term: MEtacentric chromosomes have ______ centromeres, whereas submetacentric and acrocentric chromosomes have a centromere that is slightly closer to one ____ Definition: central end Term: Satellites Definition: small segments of heterochromatin at tips of short arms of acrocentric chromosomes
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Term: Telomeres Definition: Complex structures at ends of chromosomes Term: what do telomeres do? Definition: Specialized sequences that maintain stability & integrity of chromosome Term: telomere protect chromosomes from what? Definition: Protect chromosome from DNA degradation, end-to-end fusion, rearrangement, & chromosomal loss Term: Telmomere = may play role in cell senescence - limiting lifespan of human cells Definition: May serve as molecular clock that tallies number of cell divisions & limits further divisions at some predetermined point Term: Telomerase Definition: Reverse transcriptase that synthesizes telomeric DNA
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Term: telomerase Normally inactive in what? Definition: somatic cells Term: Telomeres shorten with each cell division until too short to maintain integrity Definition: Term: telomerase appears to be activated in almost how many percent of human cancers? Definition: 90% Term: telmoerase Allowes indefinite proliferation. enzyme may be useful tumor marker and a new anticancer therapeautic target Definition: Term: Chromosome number followed by chromosome arm symbol (p or q) Definition: Arm symbol followed by "region" number and then a "band" number
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Term: Numbering for chromosome starts at? Definition: at centromere & increases toward ends of chromosome Term: High-resolution banding resolves into what? Definition: sub-bands Term: Epigenetic factors affect expression of genes without altering their DNA sequence (genotype) Definition: epigenetic changes can be passed from one cell generation to the next Term: Epigenetic Definition: a layer of information placed on a gene involving a modification that does not change the DNA sequence Term: By mass, chromosomes are made up of about ___ DNA and ___ protein. Definition: By mass, chromosomes are made up of about 50% DNA and 50% protein.
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Term: epigenome Definition: the second layer of structure in the form of proteins and chemical tags Term: what do methyle tags do to genes?
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